Goyavier de Montevideo ou du Brésil (Acca sellowiana (Feijoa sellowiana))

Publié lundi 11 février 2013 Commenter 49
Goyavier de Montevideo

Sommaire

Goyavier de Montevideo ou du Brésil : en bref

Nom scientifique
Acca sellowiana (Feijoa sellowiana)
Provenance / Origine
Brésil, Uruguay
Période de semi
Été
Période de floraison
Été
Couleur de floraison
Blanc (extérieur) et rouge (intérieur)
Température
Région sub-tropicale (tolère le gel)
Exposition à la lumière
Plein soleil
Composition du sol
Léger, bien drainé, riche
Hauteur
3 à 4 m
Acidité du sol
Neutre
Entretien
Aucun (taille si haie)
Type biologique
Vivace
Type de feuillage
Persistant

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Rosidae
Ordre
Myrtales
Famille
Myrtaceae

Un arbuste vivement esthétique

L’intérêt esthétique du goyavier de Montevideo réside dans le fait qu’il présente de petites fleurs rouge vif et blanches comportant de nombreuses étamines proéminentes (25 à 50). Ces fleurs persisteront tout l’été jusqu’en juillet sous nos latitudes, et se transformeront ensuite en fruits charnus à l’automne (généralement courant novembre).

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Les feuilles sont opposées, elliptiques-oblongues et duveteuses et blanches sur la face inférieure. Leur simplicité et leur banalité met d’autant plus en avant l’originalité des fleurs. Le port érigé du goyavier de Montevideo permet de l’utiliser dans des haies, ou simplement en végétal d’ornement isolé grâce aux fleurs de couleurs vives. Attention cependant, l’arbuste n’étant pas auto fertile (mis à par quelques cultivars créés dans ce but), l’obtention de fruits nécessite une fécondation par un autre plant voisin.

Des fruits exotiques dans nos régions tempérées

Les fruits produits par le goyavier de Montevideo sont charnus et comestibles, et nommés feijoas ou goyaves. Ce sont des baies qui mettent beaucoup de temps à mûrir en France (elles sont consommables seulement au début de l’hiver) et on ne peut vraiment repérer la maturité qu’à la tombée du fruit. Il peut enfin être consommé frais ou cuit, en confiture voire en gelée ; d’ailleurs sa pulpe est riche en vitamines B et C. De même, les pétales de la fleur sont charnus et sucrés, et peuvent être consommés.

Conseils

Rustique, votre goyavier supportera bien des sols éventuellement salés et les sécheresses une fois bien implanté. Gardez le cependant de préférence à l’abri du vent car son bois est assez cassant. Tous les types de sols seront adaptés à sa plantation et sa croissance, mais l’apport de terreau spécial pour les plantes méditerranéennes peut renforcer votre plant en cas de faiblesse ponctuelle. Un bon drainage est aussi nécessaire ; en pot des billes d’argile peuvent remplir cette fonction.

Une taille annuelle au début du printemps (mars, voire avril) entretiendra le port compact du goyavier ; vous pouvez rabattre jusqu’au deux tiers des pousses secondaires.

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