Le cornouiller sanguin (Cornus)

Publié vendredi 10 janvier 2014 Commenter 72
Cornouiller Blanc

Sommaire

Le cornouiller sanguin : en bref

Nom scientifique
Cornus
Provenance / Origine
Eurasie, Amérique du Nord
Période de floraison
Mars – Juin selon les espèces
Couleur de floraison
Blanc ou rose (bractées), fleurs vertes
Température
Plein air, jusqu'à -15°C
Exposition à la lumière
Soleil ou mi ombre
Reproduction
Semis, bouture (juin), marcottage
Hauteur
1 – 10 m selon les espèces
Acidité du sol
Neutre, préférences acide ou calcaire selon les espèces
Entretien
Taille Février à Avril
Type biologique
Arbrisseau
Maladies
Anthracnose, tavelure
Type de feuillage
Caduc

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Rosidae
Famille
Cornaceae

Un arbuste coloré

Le cornouiller est un arbuste au feuillage dense qui a l'avantage de ne jamais se dégarnir à la base. Idéal pour cacher des constructions peu esthétiques. Les jeunes pousses ont la particularité d'être de couleur rouge vif qui deviennent plus foncées en vieillissant.

Même en hiver sans leurs feuilles, ces arbustes se démarquent toujours par leur couleur vive. Le cornouiller est souvent près de plantes au feuillage persistant dans les massifs pourtant il peut aussi être planté de manière isolée.

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Les drupes de certaines espèces de cornouiller sont comestibles

Un arbuste facile à cultiver

Les cornouillers poussent sur tout type de sols même pauvres ou secs. Ils préfèrent être dans un coin ensoleillé mais se porteront très bien aussi à mi-ombre. Ce sont des arbustes d'une grande résistance au froid, jusqu'à -25 °C. Ils résistent aussi très bien aux insectes.

Pensez tout de même à les arroser en été. Un engrais à diffusion lente peut être ajouté au printemps.

Soins et taille

La plupart des espèces sont sensibles à l'anthracnose et la tavelure, des maladies causées par des champignons. Si votre cornouiller est infecté, la bouillie bordelaise est une méthode pratique qui vous permettra d'en venir à bout facilement.

Les cornouillers peuvent être facilement taillés après la floraison. Cependant leur port naturellement équilibré et le fait qu'ils croissent lentement ne favorisent pas un taille très fréquente.

Multiplication

Le cornouiller peut être aisément bouturé. Au mois de Mai, coupez une jeune pousse et supprimez les feuilles à la base. Plantez-le dans un mélange terreau/sable arrosez et couvrez. L'emploi d'une hormone de bouturage augmentera les chances de réussite.

Espèces du genre Cornus

Il existe de nombreuses espèces de cornouillers déclinées en différentes variétés. Les plus connues sont:

  • Le Cornouiller blanc qui produit des fleurs blanches.
  • Le cornouiller mâle qui existe en France à l'état sauvage, il mesure plus de 5m de hauteur.
  • Le Cornouiller sanguin qui produit des rameaux bien rouges.
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