Le Hêtre commun (Fagus sylvatica)

Publié dimanche 09 février 2014 Commenter 45
Hêtre ensoleillé

Sommaire

Le Hêtre commun : en bref

Nom scientifique
Fagus sylvatica
Provenance / Origine
Europe
Période de semi
Automne
Période de floraison
Avril – Mai
Couleur de floraison
Crème (fleur), brun (fruits)
Température
Plein air, jusqu'à -15°C
Exposition à la lumière
Soleil ou ombre
Reproduction
Semis, greffe (cultivars)
Hauteur
10 – 40 m
Acidité du sol
Neutre, supporte le calcaire
Entretien
Taille facultative Février – Mars
Type biologique
Arbre
Maladies
Mildiou, chancre, fonte des semis (phytophtora omnivora), maladie de l'écore (Nectria)
Type de feuillage
Caduc
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Pucerons, cochenilles

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Rosidae
Famille
Fagaceae

Le charme d'Adam, c'est "d'hêtre" à poils!

Cette phrase bien connue des botanistes énonce les critères pour différencier le charme, aux feuilles dentées, du hêtre, aux feuilles poilues. Le hêtre est un arbre pouvant atteindre 40 m de hauteur. Il est naturellement répandu dans toute l'Europe. C'est une essence dite dryade, elle peut très bien pousser à l'ombre dans une forêt, pour à terme prendre la place des autres essences.

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Ils préfèrent les sols riches en humus et bien frais. Plantez-le de préférence pendant l'automne à l'abri du vent, en évitant les endroits trop ensoleillés. Le hêtre est facilement sujet aux parasites, champignons et insectes.

Il faudra particulièrement le surveiller au début de sa croissance et ne pas hésiter à le traiter avec des produits naturels disponibles en jardinerie.

N'oubliez pas de l'arroser régulièrement pendant les périodes sèches, surtout au début de sa croissance.

Qu'est-ce qu'une faîne ?

La faîne est le nom du fruit akène porté par le hêtre. Très appréciée des écureuils et autres mammifères des bois, elle est également consommée par les humains. Grillées, elles feront des amuse-gueules originaux pour vos apéritifs ou une bonne garniture avec une salade.

Autrefois, on s'en servait pour faire des farines, de l'huile ou pour soigner certains problèmes neurologiques. Elles étaient même parfois consommées crues en période de famine.

Attention cependant les tanins qu'elle contiennent peuvent être toxiques.

Si vous le préférez en rouge...

Les variétés 'Ansorgei' ou 'Purpurea' de Fagus sylvatica ajouteront une dominante rouge/pourpre très sympathique à votre jardin.

Il existe aussi des variétés de hêtre pleureur : 'Pendula' et même pourpre pleureur 'Purpurea pendula. C'est le seul arbre pleureur qui existe avec un feuillage pourpre.

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