Saule blanc (Salix alba)

Publié vendredi 28 février 2014 Commenter 73
Saule blanc

Sommaire

Saule blanc : en bref

Nom scientifique
Salix alba
Provenance / Origine
Europe
Période de semi
Automne
Période de floraison
Mai-juin
Couleur de floraison
Jaune, verdatre
Température
Jusqu'à -15°C
Exposition à la lumière
Soleil
Composition du sol
Ordinaire, humide
Hauteur
6 à 25m
Acidité du sol
Acide à neutre
Entretien
Taille en février-mars
Type biologique
Vivace
Maladies
Tavelure, rouille, chancre, anthracnose
Type de feuillage
Caduc

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Dilleniidae
Famille
Salicacées

Le saule blanc, un habitué des cours d'eau et des lacs

Les variétés de saule blanc, en Europe et Asie de l'ouest, sont multiples. Le saule blanc est un arbre de taille moyenne à grande. Son feuillage d'un vert argenté est assez typique.

Le saule blanc n'apprécie que les sols humides. Ses graines sont minuscules, ce qui leur permet d'être emportées par le vent. Elles germent sur terrain très humide voire sur de la boue. C'est pourquoi, on ne trouve normalement des saules blancs que près de plans d'eau ou de cours d'eau douce.

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Veillez à choisir un sol humide, assez éloigné de votre maison, afin que l'arbre ne fasse pas d'ombre.

Le saule se plante de façon classique, de préférence à l'automne. Cela permettra aux racines de s'installer avant que le gel n'arrive.

Les attributs du saule blanc

L'écorce intérieure du saule peut être consommée. Après une longue cuisson, elle peut être additionnée séchée et en poudre dans la pâte à pain. Elle reste un aliment rustique. On préférera récolter les bourgeons et jeunes pousses, au printemps. On peut les utiliser en infusion. L'écorce ne doit pas être récoltée lorsque l'arbre est encore vert, cela l’abîmerait.

Le saule contient de la salicine, proche de l'aspirine, qui est notamment fébrifuge et calmante. L'écorce est très efficace en phytothérapie, à raison de 30g par litre d'eau.

Le saule contient enfin des hormones qui favorisent la reprise de ses racines, mais aussi celle des autres arbres. Ainsi, vous pourrez préparer un mélange contenant des rameaux de saule que l'on aura préalablement écrasés et y faire tremper vos boutures. Leur reprise sera facilitée.

Les différentes variétés

On regroupe, sous le terme de "saule blanc", les saules blancs (comme Salix alba var. caerula) et les saules blancs à feuilles argentées (Salix alba var. sericea, Salix alba var. Britzensis). Le premier présente une croissance rapide, qui permet de l'utiliser en menuiserie. Les seconds ont été sélectionnés dans un but ornemental. Leur aspect argenté est particulièrement élégant. La variété Britzensis présente, de plus, des rameaux colorés, oranges, rouges ou jaunes. Son nom vient de sa ville d'origine, Britz, en Allemagne.

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I see this plant is very useful, and this site contains the benefits of using white willow contains salicin, which is a chemical similar to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). In combination with the herb's powerful anti-inflammatory plant compounds (called flavonoids), salicin is thought to be responsible for the pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects of the herb.
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