Le haricot de Lima (Phaseolus lunatus)

Publié lundi 22 septembre 2014 Commenter 61
Haricots de Lima

Sommaire

Le haricot de Lima : en bref

Nom scientifique
Phaseolus lunatus
Provenance / Origine
Amérique centrale et du Sud
Période de semi
Printemps
Température
Températures supérieures à 18°C pour la germination mais inférieur à 30°C
Exposition à la lumière
Plein soleil
Reproduction
Graines
Hauteur
Entre 90 cm et 3-4 m selon les variétés
Acidité du sol
Entre 6 et 7
Type biologique
Plante annuelle
Maladies
Oïdium, maladie des taches foliaires et virose
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Pucerons, thrips, chenilles, aleurodes et araignées rouges
Période de récolte
12 à 16 semaines après le semis

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Rosidae
Famille
Fabacées (Légumineuses)

Le haricot de Lima, plante tropicale grimpante

Le haricot de Lima, aussi appelé haricot d'Amérique ou fève créole est une plante non rustique, annuelle. Certaines variétés sont grimpantes, d'autres sont naines et très ramifiées. Les premières peuvent atteindre 3 - 4 m de hauteur tandis que les secondes ne mesurent que 90 cm mais s'étalent sur 40 - 45 cm.

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Les jeunes pousses et les graines mûres se mangent cuites. Vous pouvez aussi faire sécher les graines ou les consommer germées. Dans ce dernier cas, mettez les graines dans le noir pour optimiser la germination.

Où cultiver le haricot de Lima ?

Cette plante tropicale a besoin de températures supérieures à 18°C pour germer. Cependant, des températures trop élevées (au-dessus de 30°C) empêchent la bonne formation du pollen. Cette plante aime une exposition en plein soleil. La plupart des variétés s'adaptent à tout type de sol mais préfère les sols sableux, enrichis en terreau et bien drainés. Le haricot de Lima préfère les sols au pH de 6-7. Ses besoins en azote sont moyens voire faibles.

Comment cultiver le haricot de Lima ?

Semez les graines de haricot de Lima au printemps ou tout au long de l'année si votre sol est assez chaud. Semez-les en pots sous abri en enfonçant la graine à 6 - 9 cm de profondeur.

Repiquez les jeunes plants lorsqu'ils atteignent 10 - 15 cm. Laissez un espace de 30 - 50 cm pour les espèces grimpantes, avec 75 - 100 cm entre les rangs. Pour les espèces naines, laissez 30 - 40 cm entre chaque pied et 45 - 60 cm entre chaque rang.

Vous pouvez également multiplier vos plants par bouturage des tiges. Prélevez la bouture tôt dans la saison pour un enracinement rapide.

Récoltez la gousse entière. Les graines sont mûres 12 à 16 semaines après le semis. Vous pouvez les conserver pendant 2 semaines dans une pièce chauffée au-dessus de 4°C et bien humide. Vous pouvez également congeler les haricots de Lima.

Un entretien quotidien

Un entretien régulier s’impose ! Vous pourrez :

  • Mettre des tuteurs aux variétés grimpantes sur au moins 2 m de hauteur pour créer une culture palissée. Attachez ensuite les rameaux aux tuteurs.
  • Arroser régulièrement vos plants. Vous pourrez conserver l'humidité du sol en paillant vos plants.
  • Mettre de l’engrais. Utilisez un engrais universel ou liquide organique jusqu'à la floraison tous les 10 - 15 jours.

Pour les variétés naines, pincez l'extrémité des tiges pour garder leur port en buisson.

Attention ! Ces haricots sont sensibles aux ravageurs suivants : pucerons, thrips, chenilles, aleurodes et araignées rouges. Méfiez-vous également des maladies suivantes : oïdium, maladies des taches foliaires et viroses.

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