Néflier d'Allemagne (Mespilus germanica)

Publié jeudi 11 décembre 2014 Commenter 66
Néflier d'Allemagne

Sommaire

Néflier d'Allemagne : en bref

Nom scientifique
Mespilus germanica
Provenance / Origine
Europe de l'est
Période de semi
Plantation à l'automne
Période de floraison
Avril-juin
Couleur de floraison
Blanc, rose pale
Température
Jusqu'à -12°C
Exposition à la lumière
Soleil à mi-ombre
Reproduction
Semis, greffe
Hauteur
4 à 6 m
Acidité du sol
Acide
Entretien
Taille, traitement
Type biologique
Vivace
Maladies
Oïdum, champignons
Type de feuillage
Caduc
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Chenilles, pucerons
Période de récolte
En hiver, après le gel

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Rosidae
Ordre
Rosales
Famille
Rosacées

Le néflier d'Allemagne, un arbre peu connu

Le néflier d'Allemagne, ou mêlier, est un arbre qui nous vient d'Europe de l'est. Ses fruits ont une saveur sucrée originale, malgré un aspect inhabituel. Ils ont aussi une particularité : on les récolte après qu'ils aient gelé. Les fruits sont alors blets, et leur chair perd en fermeté.

La plantation du néflier d'Allemagne

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Choisissez un sol bien drainé, acide. Le néflier se plante à l'automne s'il est en racines nues. En conteneur, il peut aussi se planter au printemps. Attention, la reprise risque d'être alors plus difficile : pour l'aider, arrosez régulièrement.

Procédez en creusant un trou profond d'au moins soixante-dix centimètres. Le trou doit être aussi large. Il est conseillé d'ajouter un amendement organique à la terre. Astuce : pour améliorer le drainage, vous pouvez ajouter du sable.

Placez ensuite le plant au centre du trou, après avoir humidifié les racines. Recouvrir de terre, avant d'arroser copieusement.

L'entretien du néflier d'Allemagne

Une taille régulière est conseillée afin d'aider au développement du néflier. A la fin de l'automne, chaque année, enlevez les branches abîmées, mortes ou trop fragiles. Le néflier pousse assez lentement. A la fin de l'hiver, vous pouvez aussi dégager certaines ramifications plus importantes. Cette coupe permet un meilleur accès à la lumière.

Conseil : Un apport de fumier ou d'engrais fruitier accompagnera la taille.

Le saviez-vous ?

Le néflier d'Allemagne est auto-fertile : un plant seul donnera des fruits.

Il y a différentes manières de procéder pour multiplier votre néflier. Vous pouvez, si vous êtes patients, semer directement les graines au printemps. Vous pouvez aussi procéder en greffant une branche sur aubépine. Enfin, le néflier présente des rejets, que vous pouvez déplacer, à l'automne, pour donner ensuite un nouvel arbre.

Les fruits se mangent blets. Pas d'inquiétude ! Ils sont alors comestibles et très savoureux, et ne sont pas "pourris". Attention toutefois aux parasites : afin d'éviter que ces derniers n'apparaissent dans vos fruits, votre arbre peut nécessiter un traitement.

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