Néflier du Japon, Bibacier (Eriobotrya japonica)

Publié lundi 29 septembre 2014 Commenter 100
Néflier du Japon

Sommaire

Néflier du Japon, Bibacier : en bref

Nom scientifique
Eriobotrya japonica
Provenance / Origine
Asie
Période de semi
Automne
Période de floraison
Octobre, novembre
Couleur de floraison
Blanc
Température
Jusqu'à -5°C
Exposition à la lumière
Soleil, mi-ombre
Reproduction
Semis, bouture, marcottage, greffage
Hauteur
6 à 8 m
Acidité du sol
Neutre
Entretien
Tuteurage
Type biologique
Vivace
Maladies
Champignon
Type de feuillage
Persistant
Période de récolte
Mai-juin

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Rosidae
Ordre
Rosales
Famille
Rosacées

Un arbre fruitier original... mais pas seulement

Le néflier du Japon, ou bibacier (Eriobotrya japonica) est un arbre fruitier originaire de Chine, du Japon et de Taïwan. Il appartient à la famille des Rosacées, comme le pommier et de nombreux autres fruitiers.

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Le néflier du Japon produit des nèfles orangées, différentes des nèfles du néflier d'Allemagne. Elles sont comestibles et savoureuses. L'avantage de les cultiver chez soi : il est très difficile de les trouver dans le commerce, car elles résistent mal au transport. En revanche, ces fruits se conservent bien.

Le néflier du Japon s'adapte bien à nos latitudes. Il peut être planté en pleine terre dans toute la France, bien qu'il préférera un peu de chaleur.

Le néflier du Japon est aussi beaucoup cultivé comme arbre d'ornement. Ses feuilles persistantes sont grandes et très vertes, ce qui les rend décoratives, surtout en hiver quand les autres arbres se trouvent nus.

Comment le cultiver ?

Choisissez, pour le planter, une exposition assez abritée. Le néflier du Japon n'est pas très rustique et supporte mal le froid. Il est plus résistant à la sécheresse, et tolère les régions côtières.

Vous pouvez réaliser une taille après la récolte, à la fin du printemps en général.

Quelle variété choisir ?

Le jardinier amateur de fruits pourra s'orienter vers un néflier d'origine chinoise auto-fertile assez productif. Les variétés Thales et Tanaka sont complémentaires, car le premier est hâtif, et le second tardif. La variété Algérie est un auto-fertile de milieu de saison.

Les variétés d'origine japonaise sont plus décoratives, car leurs feuilles sont plus larges. Leurs fruits sont moins parfumés, plus blancs, et se conservent moins bien. Cependant, les fruits sont plus juteux, et la peau moins épaisse. On pourra citer les variétés Champagne ou Advance.

Atout santé

La nèfle contient de la vitamine A et est peu calorique. Elle est aussi riche en calcium et en potassium.

Vous pouvez consommer la nèfle crue, ou bien en confiture, compote... Il existe de nombreuses recettes.

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