Phormium (Phormium)

Publié mardi 30 septembre 2014 Commenter 69
Phormium

Sommaire

Phormium : en bref

Nom scientifique
Phormium
Provenance / Origine
Nouvelle-Zélande
Période de semi
Printemps, été (plus de 10°C la nuit)
Période de floraison
Juillet
Couleur de floraison
Jaune, rouge, brun
Température
Jusqu'à -2°C en hiver
Exposition à la lumière
Mi-ombre
Composition du sol
Sableux, humide
Hauteur
30 cm à 1,80 m
Acidité du sol
Peu acide, peu de calcaire
Entretien
Arrosage éventuel en été
Type biologique
Vivace
Type de feuillage
Persistant
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Cochenille

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Liliopsida
Sous-classe
Liliidae
Ordre
Asparagales
Famille
Agavacées

Le phormium, une plante vivace décorative

Le phormium est une plante à bulbe aux longues feuilles, qui peuvent évoquer un bosquet d'iris. Originaire de Nouvelle-Zélande, le phormium peut se cultiver en pleine terre dans les régions chaudes (sud de la France), ou bien en pot. Le feuillage est persistant : il embellira votre jardin, même en hiver. De nombreux coloris existent, du vert au rouge, en passant par le bronze, le rose ou le jaune. Certains feuillages sont même panachés.

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Il fleurit en été, en produisant de grandes hampes florales dont les panicules varient du brun au jaune, en passant par le rouge. La première floraison se produit lorsque la plante est bien installée, au bout de quelques années.

Sa taille est très variable, puisqu'il mesure de 30 cm de haut à 1,80 m, selon les variétés.

Où l'installer ?

Le phormium sera apprécié dans différents types de jardins. En mélange naturel, par exemple sur rocaille, avec d'autres plantes rustiques et des graminées, il créera une ambiance méditerranéenne. Dans des décors plus épurés, par exemple en pot, il apportera une touche de verdure.

Le phormium en pot pourra rester dehors la majorité du temps. Il faudra toutefois le rentrer sous abri en hiver.

Comment le cultiver ?

Choisissez un sol sableux humifère. Vous pouvez réaliser un complément de sable, afin de perméabiliser votre sol. L'emplacement ne doit pas être en plein soleil, mais plutôt mi-ombre.

En été, il est possible de couper les feuilles anciennes, afin de favoriser la pousse de plus jeunes feuilles.

Contre le froid, vous pouvez réaliser un paillage, qui le protégera en hiver.

Ses atouts

Le phormium est une plante rustique qui, une fois installée, ne demande pas de soins particuliers. Le phormium n'est pas victime de maladies, ni envahi par les parasites. Une exception : la cochenille. Contre ce parasite, vous pouvez pulvériser un insecticide à l'huile de colza, ou réaliser vous-même un insecticide à base de savon noir. Le phormium résiste enfin à la chaleur et à la pollution.

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