Calebasse

Publié samedi 19 avril 2014 Commenter 75
Calebasses

Sommaire

Associée aux pays tropicaux, la calebasse est le nom donné à de gros fruits lignifiés de la famille des Cucurbitacées et des Bignoniacées.

Types de calebasses

Le calebassier

Le calebassier est un arbre tropical pouvant atteindre une dizaine de mètres. Il appartient à la famille des Bignoniacées. C'est un arbre commun aux Antilles et en Amérique latine. Il donne de gros fruits d'une trentaine de centimètres de long qui, une fois vidés, servent de contenant dans l'artisanat traditionnel. Cependant cette calebasse ne nous intéresse pas ici car le climat de la France métropolitaine n’y permet pas sa culture.


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La calebasse cucurbitacée

Un autre type de calebasse, nommé ainsi à cause de la ressemblance des deux fruits, est une plante herbacée de la famille des Cucurbitacées. Originaire d'Afrique, cette plante est là encore utilisée comme contenant dans l'artisanat traditionnel de ses pays d'origine. Nous nous intéresserons à cette plante plus particulièrement, car il est possible de la cultiver en France.

Culture de la calebasse

Semis et plantation

La calebasse se sème en pot, au printemps et de la même manière que n'importe quelle courge. Il faut ensuite repiquer les plants en pleine terre, lorsqu'ils sont assez forts. Prévoyez assez d'espace, car la plante a une croissance très rapide et prendra rapidement beaucoup de place. Il est par ailleurs possible de la faire grimper sur un grillage.


Sol et soins

La calebasse demande, comme les autres cucurbitacées, un sol frais et très ameubli, et surtout bien fertilisé et fumé. On n'hésitera pas à faire un apport d'engrais ou de crottin avant sa mise en place. Par ailleurs, la calebasse poussera bien sur l'emplacement d'un ancien tas de fumier.

La calebasse n'a pas d'exigences particulières, si ce n'est qu'elle redoute le gel. Pour parer à ce problème, il est sage de ne repiquer les jeunes plants qu'après le 15 mai, dès que le sol est assez chaud et que les dernières gelées ne sont plus à craindre.


En cuisine

Les jeunes fruits se préparent de la même manière que des courgettes. Ils seront récoltés tout au long de l'été, afin de ne pas leur laisser le temps de durcir en vieillissant. C'est néanmoins un légume au goût assez fade, et il n'est pas connu principalement pour ses vertus culinaires et gastronomiques.


En décoration

Par sa forme et sa taille imposante (jusqu'à un mètre de long), le fruit de la calebasse est très décoratif, au même titre que les coloquintes. De plus, il durcit fortement en mûrissant, ce qui facilite son stockage et son utilisation. Si les jeunes fruits seront récoltés quelques mois après le semis, les fruits murs seront cueillis à l'automne, juste avant les premières gelées, afin de les laisser mûrir au maximum.

Il convient alors de les vider de leurs graines, pour ne garder que l'enveloppe dure. Le fruit ainsi préparé peut servir de bol, de nid d'oiseau ou d'objet décoratif. Soyez inventifs dans son utilisation, il apportera une touche d'exotisme à votre maison !

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