Arbousier (arbutus)

Publié samedi 18 octobre 2014 Commenter 51
Arbousier

Sommaire

Arbousier : en bref

Nom scientifique
arbutus
Période de floraison
Octobre-Novembre
Couleur de floraison
Blanche
Exposition à la lumière
Soleil
Reproduction
Semis, marcottage, bouturage
Hauteur
2 à 5 mètres
Acidité du sol
Acide
Maladies
Tâches foliaires
Type de feuillage
Persistant
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Pucerons

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Dilleniidae
Ordre
Ericales
Famille
Ericacées

L’arbre aux fraises !

L’arbousier est aussi appelé arbre aux fraises… nom qu’il doit à l’aspect de ses fruits colorés, qui ressemblent à des fraises rondes ! Vous pouvez vous amuser à goûter ces fruits, qui sont comestibles, mais leur goût est beaucoup moins prononcé… L’arbousier est un grand arbuste, au feuillage vert foncé brillant persistant, pouvant atteindre entre 5 et 7 mètres, où s’épanouissent de très charmantes fleurs blanches en forme de grelot. Voici une petite particularité qui pourra vous aider à l’identifier : il possède des troncs multiples, et son écorce à tendance à se détacher par lambeaux ! L’arbousier a un potentiel décoratif développé, et trouve très bien sa place dans les jardins méditerranéens où sa touche naturelle est très appréciée.

Comment le cultiver ?

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Pour une mise en valeur optimale de votre arbre, l’idéal est de l’installer en bord de mer avec un bon ensoleillement. Vous pouvez bien sûr choisir aussi de le planter tout simplement dans votre jardin, sans oublier toutefois de l’abriter du vent ! Cet arbre nécessite une bonne terre de jardin, acide, qui soit peu ou pas calcaire. Quand vous le plantez, sa reprise peut être un peu délicate : pour pallier ce problème, préférez une plantation en motte ! Au niveau de la taille, vous pouvez tailler ses troncs multiples afin qu’ils ne forment plus qu’un seul tronc. Vous pourrez observer ses fleurs et ses fruits vers octobre-novembre ! La multiplication de l’arbousier se fait par semis, marcottage ou bouturage.

Quelques variétés à noter :

  • Arbutus unedo : cette variété se distingue par son écorce rougeâtre et ses fleurs d’un blanc rosé en faisant un arbre très ornemental. Des fleurs peuvent apparaître en novembre-décembre.
  • Arbutus menziesii ou arbousier de Californie : cette variété présente une riche floraison blanche à la fin du printemps, qui se transforme ensuite en fruits jaunes orangés.


Le saviez-vous ? L'arbousier est utilisé depuis l'Antiquité pour ses vertus médicinales : en effet, contenant des flavonoïdes, des anthocyanines et des tanins, il est utilisé contre l'hypertension et comme anti-inflammatoire !

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