Greffe du poirier

Publié dimanche 15 juin 2014 Commenter 74
Branche de poirier en fructification

Sommaire

Pourquoi la greffe du poirier ?

Le poirier (Pyrus communis) est bien connu en France puisqu’il constitue, avec le pommier, la vedette fruitière de l’automne. Ces fruitiers sont globalement très bien adaptés à nos sols et à nos climats, mais la greffe est communément utilisée car elle conditionne :

  • La longévité et la résistance de l’arbre.
  • La quantité de fruits produits et la date de récolte.
  • Les qualités nutritionnelles et esthétiques du fruit.

Comment, en pratique, réaliser la greffe du poirier ?

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Le porte-greffe du poirier peut être une autre espèce de poirier mieux adaptée au sol, plus résistante aux maladies, plus rarement un cognassier. Le poirier (comme le pommier d’ailleurs) se greffe au printemps (mi-mars jusqu’à fin avril) selon la méthode de la greffe en fente:

  • Préparation des greffons : ils sont prélevés sur des rameaux sains et vigoureux d’arbres en bonne santé, et ce au mois de décembre. En attendant le printemps, les greffons sont conservés au pied d’un mur exposé au nord, la base (une vingtaine de centimètres) étant enterrée dans le sol. On peut aussi les conserver de la même manière en cave fraîche. Au printemps, étêtez votre greffon que vous aurez déterré. Il s’agit ensuite de tailler la base (le greffon, hors partie taillée, doit avoir une longueur de 2-3 entre-nœuds) : taillez la base en forme de lame de couteau. Faîtes des coupes nettes et précises.
  • Fendre le sujet : rabattez le sujet à 1m50-1m80 de hauteur. La coupe doit être légèrement oblique pour laisser s’écouler l’eau de pluie. Fendez ensuite l’arbre à l’aide d’une serpette et d’un maillet (placez la serpette là où vous voulez placer la fente et tapez légèrement avec le maillet pour fendre en douceur votre porte-greffe.
  • Placez le greffon ou les greffons si fente complète : tournez légèrement votre serpette pour dégager un espace dans lequel vous pourrez glisser votre greffon.
  • Ligaturez (à l’aide de raphia) et engluez avec du mastic à greffer.

La greffe en couronne est également possible sur des sujets de diamètre important (supérieur à 8 cm). Cette greffe se fait à la fin de l’été, et a de bonnes chances de réussite entre le 20 août et le 20 septembre. La préparation des greffons est identique pour la greffe en couronne et la greffe en fente. L’insertion des greffons est quant à elle, différente. Les greffons s’insèrent entre l’écorce et le bois de l’arbre.

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