Les porte-greffes du prunier

Publié vendredi 18 juillet 2014 Commenter 86
Prunier en fructification

Sommaire

Le prunier peut s’obtenir par semis. Cependant, les résultats sont incertains par semis (exception faite des pruniers mirabelles). Alors, si vous voulez avoir la certitude de pouvoir déguster de bonnes prunes en été, greffez vos pruniers francs mais choisissez surtout des porte-greffes adaptés !

Rappel : qu’est-ce qu’un porte-greffe ?

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Un porte-greffe est un arbre sur lequel on implante un greffon. Le porte-greffe fait donc le lien entre le sol et le greffon. Il nourrit d’ailleurs ce dernier en eau et en sels minéraux puisés dans le sol. Ce sera le greffon qui donnera les fruits.

Il est très dur d’obtenir un arbre fruiter à partir d’une graine tout en conservant les caractéristiques du fruit d’où provient cette graine. La greffe permet de remédier à cette situation. Le porte-greffe y est très important : très robuste et bien adapté au sol, il résistera mieux au gel et aux maladies garantissant ainsi des fruits de qualité.

Les différents porte-greffes adaptés au prunier

Vous pourrez choisir, comme porte-greffe, entre :

  • Le franc : vigoureux, il pourra se développer sur des sols peu fertiles. La forme du porte-greffe doit être en tige ou demi-tige, et la mise à fruit est assez lente.
  • Le prunier Myrobolan : vigoureux, il s’adapte sur tous les types de sols. La forme du porte-greffe doit être en demi-tige ou basse-tige, et la mise à fruit est rapide.
  • Le prunier INRA Myrobolan GF 31 : Cet arbre présente une grande vigueur et se plaît sur les sols secs et caillouteux. La forme du porte-greffe doit être en demi-tige ou basse-tige, et la mise à fruit est rapide.
  • Le prunier Brompton : il demande un sol siliceux et frais. La forme du porte-greffe doit être en demi-tige ou en gobelet, et la mise à fruit est rapide.
  • Le prunier Mariana INRA GF 81 : de vigueur moyenne, il aime les sols frais et légers. La forme du porte-greffe doit être en basse-tige ou en gobelet, et la mise à fruit est assez rapide.
  • L’amandier x pêcher GF 611 : moyennement vigoureux, il a besoin d’un sol argilo-calcaire pour se développer. La forme du porte-greffe doit être basse-tige ou en gobelet, et la mise à fruit est assez rapide.
  • Le prunier Saint Julien : Il a une moyenne vigueur. Il lui faut un sol frais, lourd et humide pour croître. La forme du porte-greffe doit être en basse-tige ou en gobelet, et la mise à fruit est assez rapide.
  • Le prunier Damas Noir : de faible vigueur, il appréciera les sols frais et argileux. La forme du porte-greffe doit être basse-tige ou en gobelet, et la mise à fruit est rapide.

Cette gamme importante de porte-greffe permet de choisir celui qui sera le plus adapté à votre sol mais aussi à la vigueur et à la forme que vous désirez obtenir.

Dates et techniques de greffe

En mars, juillet ou septembre, la greffe se fait en écusson à œil dormant, en demi fente ou en incrustation. Elle peut aussi se faire en couronne en avril-mai.

Voir aussi : le greffage et deux autres techniques de multipication végététative : le bouturage, le marcottage.

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