Les porte-greffes du néflier

Publié vendredi 11 juillet 2014 Commenter 82
Néflier en fructification

Sommaire

La germination des graines de néflier est capricieuse, lente et donc difficilement réussie, d’où l’intérêt de la greffe.

Rappel : qu’est-ce qu’un porte-greffe ?

Un porte-greffe est un arbre sur lequel on implante un greffon. Le porte-greffe fait donc le lien entre le sol et le greffon. Il nourrit d’ailleurs ce dernier en eau et en sels minéraux puisés dans le sol. Ce sera le greffon qui donnera les fruits.

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Il est très dur d’obtenir un arbre fruiter à partir d’une graine tout en conservant les caractéristiques du fruit d’où provient cette graine. La greffe permet de remédier à cette situation. Le porte-greffe y est très important : très robuste et bien adapté au sol, il résistera mieux au gel et aux maladies garantissant ainsi des fruits de qualité.

Le néflier commun

Intérêt du porte-greffe du néflier commun

Pour le néflier commun ou Mespilu germanica, l’intérêt de la greffe est la multiplication des variétés, des cultivars et l’adaptation au sol.


Les différents porte-greffes adaptés au néflier commun

Ses porte-greffes sont :

  • L’aubépine (Crataegus oxyacantha) pour les terres franches
  • Le poirier franc (Pyrus communis) pour les terres limoneuses
  • Le cognassier (Cydonia oblonga) pour les terres fraîches
  • Le sorbier (Sorbus domestica) pour les terres siliceuses

C’est avec l’aubépine que le néflier semble se développer le mieux.


Dates et techniques de greffe du néflier commun

La greffe se fait en mars en fente simple ou double, ou en écusson en juillet.

Le néflier du Japon

Intérêt du porte-greffe du néflier du Japon

Pour le néflier du Japon ou Eriobotrya japonica, l’intérêt de la greffe est la multiplication des cultivars et l’adaptation à la vigueur.


Les différents portes-greffes adaptés au néflier du Japon

Les porte-greffes sont :

  • Le bibacier franc (Eriobotrya japonica) pour une vigueur forte
  • Le cognassier (Cydonia oblonga) pour une vigueur faible
  • L’aubépine (Crataegus oxycantha) pour une vigueur moyenne
  • Le pyracantha (appelé aussi buisson ardent).

Le franc est le porte greffe le plus largement utilisé, mais le cognassier résiste spécialement bien au froid, il active la production et augmente la durée de vie potentielle du néflier.


Dates et techniques de greffe du néflier du Japon

La greffe se fait en juillet-août, en écusson œil dormant. C’est la meilleure alternative en termes de période et de technique de greffe. Cependant vous pouvez aussi essayer de greffer en écusson œil poussant en avril, en approche en tête en mai.

Enfin il vaut mieux greffer sur un rameau âgé d’un an plutôt que sur un rameau de l’année.

Voir aussi : Le greffage et deux autres techniques de multipication végététative : le bouturage, le marcottage.

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Jhon 06 - il y a 857 jours
SVP je voudrais voir le fruit du néflier greffé sur le congnassier. Salutations
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et à l'inverse que peut on greffer sur un porte greffe de nefflier (du Portugal)? du poirier ?... merci
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