Les porte-greffes du citronnier

Publié jeudi 18 septembre 2014 Commenter 69
citronnier adulte en fructification

Sommaire

La greffe est une technique d'arboriculture qui, quoique parfois délicate à réaliser, permet d'obtenir de meilleurs rendements en fruits ou d'implanter une espèce sur un sol qui ne lui est pas naturellement favorable. En outre, elle permet de multiplier à l'identique une variété productive, et est donc très utilisée. Le citronnier se prête bien à cela, encore faut-il utiliser les bons porte-greffes !

Tour d'horizon des porte-greffes du citronnier

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Parmi les porte-greffes les plus courants du citronnier, on trouve :

  • Le citronnier épineux : On nomme ainsi le citronnier semé et né d'une graine de fruit. Ces arbres donnent assez rarement des fruits. S’ils en donnent, ces derniers sont souvent amers et la productivité est moindre en comparaison des sujets greffés. A ce titre, les semis de citronniers donneront plutôt des porte-greffes que des arbres fruitiers. Ce porte-greffe est intéressant car résistant à des sols calcaires. Il peut également résister à des températures assez négatives. En effet, il supportera les hivers assez rigoureux, où le thermomètre descendra à -10°C.

  • Le bigaradier: Le bigaradier, dont les fruits sont nommés « oranges amères », est un bon porte-greffe pour les agrumes et est donc apte à recevoir des greffes de citronnier. C'est également un porte-greffe adapté aux sols calcaires, et résistant aussi bien aux hivers froids qu’à plusieurs maladies notables des agrumes.

  • Poncirus trifoliata: Originaire de Corée, cet agrume résiste à de grands froids, jusqu'à -20°C. A ce titre, il peut être un bon choix de porte-greffe pour un citronnier, notamment dans les zones où la rusticité est recherchée. En revanche, il ne supportera pas les sols calcaires, et demandera dans le pire des cas un sol neutre.

Obtenir des porte-greffes

Le semis

Il est possible de semer ses propres porte-greffes. Cela est simple avec les agrumes : enterrez un pépin de citron et attendez la levée, en plaçant le pot dans un endroit chaud et humide. Pensez à bien annoter le nom de la plante semée, car un citronnier se greffera plus facilement sur un autre citronnier que sur un oranger, même si cette greffe est possible.


La bouture

Il est également possible de bouturer le porte-greffe, par des boutures de tiges la plupart du temps. Cela se fait notamment pour le Poncirus trifoliata, en boutures ligneuses et avec hormones de bouturage pour de plus grandes chances de reprise. Quoiqu'il en soit, il est toujours possible de trouver des porte-greffes chez des pépiniéristes spécialisés, si la production de vos propres porte-greffes est trop lente à votre goût.


Choix des porte-greffes

On choisira bien sûr ses porte-greffes en fonction de leur résistance et de leurs exigences climatiques, référencées dans la liste ci-dessus. D'autre part, il faut choisir des sujets sains et vigoureux, adaptés au greffon. En effet, un sujet trop vigoureux risque de tuer le greffon par un influx trop fort de sève, alors qu'un sujet trop peu vigoureux entraînera le séchage du greffon. D'une manière générale, on dira que le porte-greffe doit avoir un diamètre au plus égal à 2 cm.

Une fois le choix du porte-greffe fait, il ne reste plus qu'à prélever le greffon et à l'installer !

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connect 4 Pensez à bien annoter le nom de la plante semée, car un citronnier se greffera plus facilement sur un autre citronnier que sur un oranger, même si cette greffe est possible.
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