Les porte-greffes du cerisier

Publié jeudi 11 septembre 2014 Commenter 80
Cerisier en fructification

Sommaire

La greffe est une technique d'arboriculture qui, quoique parfois délicate à réaliser, permet d'obtenir des rendements plus élevés. Le cerisier fait partie des arbres fruitiers que l'on greffe pour le multiplier, pour améliorer sa productivité ou pour le planter sur un sol auquel il n'est pas naturellement adapté.

Les espèces aptes à recevoir le cerisier

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Parmi les porte-greffes recommandés, on peut citer :

  • Le Sainte-Lucie : Le Sainte-Lucie (Prunus mahaleb) est un porte-greffe résistant et de bonne qualité, ayant donné lieu à plusieurs travaux de recherche par l'INRA ces dernières années. Il sera particulièrement adapté aux sols calcaires, et bien drainés. Il amènera une mise à fruits rapide du cerisier, ce qui est un de ses principaux avantages.

  • Le merisier : Sorte de Prunus sauvage, le merisier est assez proche du cerisier. Il est principalement utilisé pour les greffes destinées à donner des individus adultes de grande taille, typiquement des arbres de plusieurs mètres. Il permettra une meilleure prospection du sol, et donc de plus beaux fruits et une meilleure production.

  • Le cerisier franc : On nomme ainsi un cerisier né d'un semis. Il ne serait pas apte à donner de lui-même une bonne fructification sans greffe.

  • Les autres Prunus : D'une manière générale, tous les Prunus (prunier, amandier, etc.) sont assez proches du cerisier, qui est du même genre. Ils peuvent à ce titre servir de porte-greffe. Cela n'est pourtant pas recommandé, car ils sont moins adaptés que les trois espèces citées plus haut.

Semis ou achat ?

Le semis

Les porte-greffes peuvent tous être semés à domicile. Pour obtenir des cerisiers francs, il suffit de récupérer les noyaux des cerises et de les ressemer dans un sol assez profond et humifère, propice à leur levée. On pourra les semer dans des pots, qui permettront un rempotage après un à deux ans, ce qui peut renforcer la racine.

Si vous ne voulez pas semer vos porte-greffes, il est toujours possible de s'en procurer auprès des pépiniéristes. Dans tous les cas, il vous faudra choisir des sujets sains et présentant une bonne résistance aux maladies, qualité recherchée pour le porte-greffe.


La greffe

La greffe du cerisier aura lieu au mois de septembre, après l'été, mais avant que les pluies n'aient trop refroidi la terre. Pour les techniques de greffe de cet arbre, référez-vous à l'article correspondant.

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