Azalée (Rhododendron simsii)

Publié mardi 15 janvier 2013 Commenter 106
azalee

Sommaire

Azalée : en bref

Nom scientifique
Rhododendron simsii
Provenance / Origine
Chine, Himalaya, Caucase
Période de semi
Semis non usuel
Période de floraison
Printemps
Couleur de floraison
Blanc, rose, rouge, unicolore ou bicolore
Température
5 à 16°C
Exposition à la lumière
Mi-ombre, lumière tamisée
Reproduction
Boutures
Hauteur
Jusqu'à 1 m en pot
Acidité du sol
Acide
Entretien
Arrosage régulier. Engrais pour soutenir la floraison.
Type biologique
Vivace
Maladies
Galle foliaire
Type de feuillage
Persistant
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Phytophtoras

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Dilleniidae
Ordre
Ericales
Famille
Ericaceae

Prendre soin de l'Azalée : la fraîcheur est de mise

L'Azalée peut être cultivée aussi bien en extérieur qu'en intérieur. De la famille des rhododendrons, et pourvue de fleurs doubles aux couleurs gaies, elle magnifiera aussi bien votre jardin d'ornement que votre appartement. L'Azalée vendue comme fleur d'intérieur est éphémère, sa croissance a été accélérée, il sera alors plus difficile de la refleurir, même si cela reste possible.

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L'Azalée ne supporte pas la chaleur, et montre des signes de faiblesse au-delà de 15°C. C'est pourquoi les pièces surchauffées ne lui conviennent pas, et qu'un hivernage en serre entre 5 et 10°C est conseillé. La nuit, descendez-la à la cave si vous en avez une, au frais, ou dans la pièce la plus fraîche de votre maison. D'autant plus qu'elle a besoin d'humidité, alors que le chauffage dessèche l'atmosphère.

Posez donc l'Azalée sur lit de billes d'argile humide, arrosez tous les deux jours pendant la floraison et deux fois par semaine sinon. Mais ne détrempez pas la terre! Car sinon ce serait la porte ouverte aux Phytophtoras, qui atteignent la plante quand elle est gorgée d'eau, et curieusement, la dessèche.

D'autre part, si vous souhaitez vaporiser la plante, c'est possible, mais ne mouillez ni les fleurs ni la face supérieure des feuilles. Pour toutes ces opérations, n'utilisez que de l'eau douce, car l'Azalée ne supporte pas le calcaire. Elle est en effet une des quelques plantes qui poussent dans la terre de bruyère pure, très acide. L'Azalée appréciera d'être sortie de temps à autre l'été, à l'abri du vent et à une orientation plutôt nord et ombragée.

Suivi de la croissance

Apportez un engrais spécifique aux plantes de terre de bruyère de février à juillet, car la floraison de l'Azalée est coûteuse en énergie.

En ce qui concerne la multiplication, elle se fait par bouturage. Sélectionnez des tiges qui n'ont pas porté de fleurs, enlevez quelques feuilles à leur base. Poudrez un peu d'hormones de bouturage dessus. Pas d'angoisses, vous n'obtiendrez pas de plantes transgéniques, ces hormones stimulent les divisions cellulaires qui sont à la base de la croissance de la plante. Plantez les dans une petite serre, que vous chaufferez à 25°C par le dessous. Attendez de voir apparaître de nouvelles feuilles avant de replanter vos boutures. Si vous repérez une apparition de galle foliaire, il vous faudra pulvériser un fongicide.

N'hésitez pas à consulter la fiche de l'azalée des indes, très proche de l'azalée commune.

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