Hellébore (Helleborus niger)

Publié mardi 22 janvier 2013 Commenter 74
Hellébore

Sommaire

Hellébore : en bref

Nom scientifique
Helleborus niger
Provenance / Origine
Centre et sud de l'Europe
Période de semi
Juillet - août
Période de floraison
Novembre à mars
Couleur de floraison
Blanche à extérieur pourpré
Température
Très rustique, jusqu'à -25°C au moins
Exposition à la lumière
Mi ombre
Reproduction
Semis et division
Hauteur
30 à 40cm
Acidité du sol
Neutre à alcalin
Entretien
Nettoyer après floraison, apport de compost
Type biologique
Vivace
Maladies
Pourriture grise, tâches noires
Type de feuillage
Persistant
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Pucerons, limaces

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Magnoliidae
Famille
Ranunculaceae

La Rose de Noël

C'est l'une des rares plantes qui peut colorer le sol de ses fleurs en plein milieu de l'hiver. L'Hellébore est une vivace très rustique, au feuillage vert sombre persistant. Ses feuilles épaisses et robustes bravent les hivers les plus rigoureux, et comme si elle défiait la nature de venir la mettre à l'épreuve, elle ne craint pas non plus les animaux affamés car sa sève est très toxique. Cette plante mystérieuse au charme indéfinissable jouit d'une forte symbolique : dans la mythologie grecque, elle est associée au dieu Chronos, roi des titans et père de Zeus, rien que ça! Par ailleurs, selon sa couleur elle peut communiquer une demande en mariage (blanc), une supplication de fin des tourments (noir) ou interroge le partenaire sur ses sentiments (vert). L'hellébore noire est typiquement une plante de sous-bois qui apprécie les sols frais, riches, plutôt lourds et la mi ombre.

 

Conseils et culture

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La Rose de Noël est peu exigeante en termes d'entretien, si vous lui trouvez un bon emplacement, elle fleurira une fois bien installée, mais peut être pas les deux ou trois premières années. Pour cette raison, évitez de la changer de placer fréquemment. Les soins se résument à un apport éventuel de compost et un nettoyage après la fructification. Arrosez si le sol s'assèche, l'hellébore a besoin d'une bonne humidité.

En procédant par semis en juin-juillet, on mettra les graines sous châssis froid, puis elles seront repiquées en godets sous abri pour passer l'hiver avant d'être mises en place à l'automne de l'année suivante. On peut aussi réaliser une division des touffes après la floraison.

 

L’Herbe aux fous : une fleur toxique

L'hellébore est une plante toxique dont toutes les parties sont empoisonnées. Les toxines responsables sont l'helléboréine et l'helléborine, et sont probablement capables de traverser l'épiderme. Aussi, la racine juste cueillie peut être un irritant violent pour les peaux sensibles. Il est donc conseillé par précautions de ne pas trop toucher cette plante. Cependant, l'Hellébore a été utilisée par le passé pour soigner la folie. Pour les herboristes qui savent en maîtriser les doses, elle peut avoir plusieurs effets bénéfiques sur la santé : elle stimule le transit intestinal, l'élimination par le travail des reins, évacue les parasites intestinaux, peut influer sur l'activité cardiaque et constitue un narcotique (soulage la douleur, apaise et donne une sensation de bien être).

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