Culture de l'oranger en pot

Publié dimanche 08 novembre 2015 Commenter 40

Sommaire

L’oranger, ou Citrus Sinensis, est un arbre de la famille des rutacées, résultant du croisement du pamplemousse et du mandarinier. Cet arbre produit des oranges dites « Oranges douces », que l’on distingue des « Oranges amères » produites par le bigaradier. Originaire de Chine, cet arbre a été longtemps le symbole de l’exotisme, et on trouve des pièces qui lui sont consacrées, les « orangeries », dans de nombreux châteaux.

L’Oranger : Description

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L’oranger est un petit arbre pouvant atteindre une dizaine de mètres de hauteur. Il porte des feuilles vert foncé, de forme ovale, satinées, et des épines sur son tronc. La culture mondiale d’oranges est principalement faite en Floride, où elle contribue sur place à la production de boissons.

Craignant les gelées, l’oranger ne peut être planté en pleine terre que dans les pays où la température est douce toute l’année (température supérieure à 5°C). Sous nos latitudes, il convient plutôt de le planter en pot, que l’on peut en revanche sortir dehors l’été, ou le mettre en serre. Comme ce n’est pas une plante d’intérieur, ne le laissez pas dans une pièce trop chauffée tout l’hiver. Essayez surtout de le placer dans un endroit le plus lumineux possible, devant une baie vitrée par exemple.

Entre juin et septembre, il est possible de bouturer ou de semer un oranger. Cela permet notamment d’obtenir un oranger à partir d’oranges dont on a apprécié le goût.

Exigences culturales et taille des branches

L’oranger a des besoins en eau relativement réduits, sauf en période de floraison et de fructification, ou lors de grosses chaleurs. Cependant, lorsqu’il est planté dans un pot, le dessèchement du substrat est plus important qu’en pleine terre, et il faudra donc arroser régulièrement. Pensez aussi à des rempotages réguliers pour lui permettre de se développer.

La taille de la ramure doit s’effectuer en début de printemps ou à la fin de l’hiver, après la récolte. Les orangers peuvent aisément se prêter à des tailles artistiques ou originales. Vous pouvez facilement par exemple faire une taille laissant libre un tronc nu, surmonté d’un feuillage en forme de boule. Par la taille, vous pourrez également procéder à un éclaircissement qui permettra à la lumière de pénétrer au centre du feuillage.

Fruit de l’hiver par excellence, douceur de Noël, à marier avec le chocolat, l’orange de votre production sera un dessert idéal pour les fêtes par exemple !

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