Olivier (Olea europea)

Publié lundi 11 février 2013 Commenter 80
Olivier

Sommaire

Olivier : en bref

Nom scientifique
Olea europea
Provenance / Origine
Bassin méditerranéen
Période de semi
Printemps, plantation en mars-avril
Période de floraison
Eté
Couleur de floraison
Blanc crème
Température
Résiste au froid, de -10 à -20°C selon les variétés
Exposition à la lumière
Soleil
Composition du sol
Profond, fertile, drainant
Hauteur
10-15 m
Acidité du sol
Acide à neutre
Entretien
Taille d'ornementation et de fructification
Type biologique
Arbre
Type de feuillage
Persistant
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Cochenilles

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Asteridae
Ordre
Scrophulariales
Famille
Oleacées

Un bel arbre méditerranéen

Tout le monde connaît l'olivier, arbre symbole de longévité de la paix. Cet arbre ne ressemble à aucun autre avec sa silhouette noueuse et ses feuilles gris-vert argenté.

 

Il donne de nombreuses fleurs blanc crème en été dont une partie produit des olives d’abord vertes puis noires à maturité.

L’olivier prospère sous un climat méditerranéen. On y trouve des vergers pour la production d’olives de table ou d’huiles. Dans cette région, l’olivier peut être planté au jardin sans problème, isolé, en massif ou même comme haie.

 
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Là où les hivers sont plus froids, il est possible de le cultiver en pot sur une terrasse ou un balcon pour pouvoir le rentrer en serre froide durant l’hiver.

Une longévité exceptionnelle

L’olivier est remarquable de par son incroyable longévité. Le plus vieux spécimen aurait dépassé les 3000 ans d’âge!

La production d’olives évolue au cours de sa vie : il commence à fructifier à l’âge de 7 ans  (voire 4 ans pour une variété greffée).  De 30 à 150 ans environ (variable selon les variétés) il est en pleine vigueur. Ensuite, sa productivité décroît.

 

Quelques exigences particulières

L’olivier résiste à des gelées de -10 à -20 °C selon les variétés.

 

C’est un arbre qui apprécie le soleil et la chaleur et résiste très bien à la sécheresse. C’est pour cela que le climat méditerranéen aux longs étés chauds lui convient parfaitement et lui permet une bonne fructification.

Attention il est très sensible aux vents et à l’humidité.

Cet arbre d’adapte très bien aux sols secs, pauvres et caillouteux.

Planter son olivier

Plantez votre plant au printemps après les gelées (ou en automne si les risques de grandes gelées hivernales sont faibles) en enterrant la motte à 5 cm de profondeur. Choisissez un emplacement bien drainé, si possible exposé au sud et à l’abri des vents forts. Les premières années, arrosez 1 à 2 fois par mois dans une petite cuvette creusée autour du tronc.

Pour vos arbres en pot, utilisez un mélange de terreau et de terre franche, additionné de sable fin. Arrosez avec parcimonie 1 à 2 fois par semaine.

Taille d’ornementation et taille de fructification

L’olivier supporte bien les tailles sévères mais elles ne sont pas vraiment nécessaires. Réalisez tous les ans une taille d’ornementation qui consiste à supprimer les rameaux morts ou malade, et toute branche nuisant à l’esthétisme de l’arbre. Aérez le centre de l’arbre.

Ensuite, lorsque votre arbre est fructifère, taillez tous les 2-3 ans les rameaux ayant portés des fruits.

Les principales variétés d’oliviers

‘Aglandaou’ : autofertile, très résistant au froid, cultivé pour l’huile.

‘Bouteillan’ : pollinisé par ‘Cayon’, très résistant au froid, cultivé pour les olives vertes.

 

‘Cailletier’ : autofertile, assez frileux, cultivé pour les olives noires.

‘Cayon’ : autofertile, assez frileux, cultivé pour l’huile.

‘Picholine du Gard’ : autofertile, bon pollinisateur, assez frileux, cultivé pour les olives vertes.

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Encyclopédie des plantes
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