Jardiner en sol argileux

Publié dimanche 03 janvier 2016 Commenter 54
Sol argileux

Sommaire

La teneur en argile de votre sol est l'un des facteurs les plus importants pour connaître la capacité de votre terrain à accueillir telle ou telle plante. Les argiles sont des particules de très petite taille de l’ordre d’un micromètre. Elles sont organisées en feuillets très fins.

Quelles caractéristiques ?

Les sols argileux sont des sols bien structurés à la porosité très fine. L’eau met du temps à s’y écouler. Cependant, la terre a une forte capacité à retenir l’eau et possède une importante réserve hydrique. Cette dernière permet d’éviter les problèmes liés à la sécheresse.

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La matière organique du sol et plus particulièrement l’humus s’associent étroitement avec les argiles pour former un complexe très important pour l’alimentation minérale des végétaux : le complexe argilo-humique. Cette formation est un vrai stock d’éléments minéraux: grâce aux échanges permanents de minéraux entre le complexe et la solution du sol, la plante bénéficiera d'apports en minéraux de qualité. Dans ces sols, il n’y a jamais de problème concernant la teneur en matière organique: celle-ci se trouve en quantité suffisante du fait de sa minéralisation progressive et de la présence du complexe argilo-humique.

Les inconvénients d'un sol argileux

Les inconvénients d'un sol argileux sont dus à la taille des particules d’argile. En voici les principaux:

  • Un sol argileux est relativement difficile à travailler et il n’est pas évident d'y affiner la terre. Les plantes semées auront donc potentiellement des difficultés à lever.
  • Le sol se réchauffe difficilement. Il est donc souvent déconseillé de réaliser les plantations au mois de novembre.

Quelles plantes choisir?

En général, il faut éviter de semer car les graines pourraient avoir du mal à lever à cause des agrégats d’argiles présents. Il vaut donc mieux faire croître les végétaux et s’assurer que leurs racines sont suffisamment développées avant de les repiquer en sol argileux.

Vos plantations devront également dépendre du pH du sol corrélé avec une roche mère souvent calcaire en terrain argileux. Le pH sera toujours neutre à basique. Privilégiez donc des plantes connues pour leur affinité en pH basique ou neutre: héllebores, œillets d'Inde ou encore rosiers s'y accommoderont à merveille! N’hésitez pas à incorporer du sable dans votre sol pour permettre à votre terre une meilleure aptitude au travail mécanique et à la pénétration racinaire.

Reconnaître facilement le type de sol

Pour reconnaître facilement le type de sol que vous avez, nous vous recommandons de lire l'article de tousaupotager.fr qui présente, image à l'appui un test simple de reconnaissance du sol

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