Jardiner en sol calcaire

Publié mercredi 05 février 2014 Commenter 62
Sol calcaire

Sommaire

Comment déceler un sol calcaire?

Jardiner est une pratique qui dépend de nombreux facteurs. L'un de ceux-ci est essentiel pour réussir un beau jardin car il est primordial d’y adapter ce que nous y plantons ou semons. Il s’agit du SOL. Il peut être plus ou moins acide, neutre ou basique. Nous nous intéressons ici aux sols à pH basique c'est-à-dire supérieur à 7,5. Ce type de sol est dû à la présence de roches calcaires qui vont participer à la libération d’ions à charges négatives. Pour savoir si vous avez affaire à un sol calcaire, vous pouvez gratter un peu le sol et mettre quelques gouttes d’acide chlorhydrique-sulfurique. Une effervescence prouvera que votre sol est calcaire. Si vous n’en disposez pas, observez les végétaux poussant sur ce sol : la présence de trèfles ou de bleuets vous assurera que le sol est bien calcaire.

Comment le gérer?

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Un sol calcaire est assez intéressant agronomiquement parlant. Seul un pH trop élevé peut entraîner des carences en nutrition minérale chez certaines plantes (notamment en fer). Dans ce cas là, vous pouvez incorporer dans votre sol des fumiers ou idéalement des purins ou lisiers qui neutraliseront le pH de votre sol après quelques années. En plus d’abaisser votre pH du sol, la matière organique va se minéraliser avec une vitesse importante ce qui enrichira votre terre en minéraux.

Un sol calcaire est également souvent riche en cailloux et pierres de tailles variables. Si c’est le cas, préférez un usage superficiel de votre sol avec un travail de surface uniquement. Dans ce cas, les plantes à racines comestibles et tubercules ne seront pas adaptées.

Quelles plantes choisir ?

A propos des plantes à implanter dans un sol calcaire, seuls les végétaux « calcicoles » et tolérants au calcaire supporteront le pH basique du sol.

Concernant les arbres fruitiers vous pourrez planter des pruniers. En revanche, vous devrez choisir un porte-greffe tolérant les sols calcaire pour les autres arbres à fruits à noyaux ou à pépins. Les noyers et noisetiers se développeront bien tout comme la vigne.

En termes de légumes, vous pourrez choisir des aubergines, des carottes, des pommes de terre, des tomates ou de la laitue. Ce sont les choux, les céleris ou encore les salsifis qui se porteront le mieux. Vous pourrez également cultiver des oignons et des échalotes. Si vous souhaitez décorer votre jardin, les lilas seront très adaptés à ce type de sol.

Enfin, si vous souhaitez orner votre jardin d’arbres, préférez le hêtre au chêne. Le tilleul, le charme ou encore le bouleau se plairont aussi agréablement au sein de ce type de sol.

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