Gentiane de Koch, Gentiane des Alpes (Gentiana acaulis)

Publié lundi 21 janvier 2013 Commenter 21
Gentiane de Koch, Gentiane des Alpes

Sommaire

Gentiane de Koch, Gentiane des Alpes : en bref

Nom scientifique
Gentiana acaulis
Provenance / Origine
Alpes, Pyrénées, Carpates
Période de semi
Novembre-décembre
Période de floraison
Mai à juillet
Couleur de floraison
Bleu
Température
Très rustique, jusqu'à -25°C au moins
Exposition à la lumière
Mi ombre
Reproduction
Semis ou division
Hauteur
5 à 10cm
Acidité du sol
Neutre à acide (surtout pas calcaire)
Entretien
Superposer des gravers au sol de culture, arrosage estival
Type biologique
Vivace
Maladies
Rouille de la gentiane, certains champignons
Type de feuillage
Caduc
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Limaces, escargots, pucerons, araignées rouges

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Asteridae
Famille
Gentianaceae

La beauté dans la discrétion

La Gentiane acaule, plante gazonnante ne dépassant pas une quinzaine de centimètres est une vraie rase-motte, et pourtant si jolie! Sa grande fleur en trompette d'un bleu profond renferme des motifs superbes quand on la contemple de face. Cette espèce comprend six sous espèces qui fleurissent toutes au printemps. Elle tire son nom du premier homme qui l'aurait, paraît il, utilisé à des fins médicinales : le romain Gentius, roi d'Illyrie en 150 avant JC. Il l'aurait notamment employé afin de lutter contre une épidémie de peste. La partie spécifique "acaulis", quant à elle, signifie sans tige car la plante est très petite. Cette vivace est originaire des régions montagneuses d'Europe est assez difficile à cultiver, elle se plaît dans les sols rocailleux bien drainés et humifères. Elle a besoin d'une certaine humidité qui ne doit pas être menacée par la chaleur d'une forte exposition. La Gentiane est utilisée depuis des lustres comme plantes médicinale, ainsi que dans la composition d'une liqueur alpine.

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Peu de conseils peuvent être donnés quant à cette alpine parfois capricieuse, sinon les règles concernant les conditions de sol et de lumière déjà abordés. Si votre jardin est peu caillouteux, c'est bien, mais il faudra sans doute rajouter des graviers de granite en terre pour la Gentiane.

On peut multiplier la Gentiane acaulis par semis en novembre-décembre sous châssis froid dans un mélange de tiers de terreau de feuille, de couche et de tourbe ordinaire. La germination peut être très longue au delà de un an et la mise en place se fait au printemps. Sinon, il est possible de diviser les touffes en automne.

La Gentiane, bien connue des herboristes

L'espèce la plus utilisée en herboristerie est la gentiana lutea, mais acaulis possède les même propriétés si ce n'est que les principes actifs y sont moins concentrés. C'est la racine de gentiane qui est le plus souvent utilisée, notamment comme remède contre la fièvre ou les désordre digestifs. Mais cette plante a un grand nombre d'autres d'intérêts dans la pharmacopée végétale. Dans un autre registre, la Gentiane contient certains des composés les plus amers connus et est utilisée comme référence pour caractériser l'amertume.

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Albane Martin - il y a 455 jours
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Albane Martin - il y a 455 jours
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Albane Martin - il y a 455 jours
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Albane Martin - il y a 455 jours
This is such a beautiful flow. I really like. I am an a pharmaceutical resume writer at a renowned company. At my company, we have an amazing garden which is full of flowers. Now I am loving this flower. I will definitely plant it in my garden so that everyone can see its beauty and become inspired by it. Clients also love the view. Thanks.
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Albane Martin - il y a 455 jours
This is such a beautiful flow. I really like. I am an a pharmaceutical resume writer at a renowned company. At my company, we have an amazing garden which is full of flowers. Now I am loving this flower. I will definitely plant it in my garden so that everyone can see its beauty and become inspired by it. Clients also love the view. Thanks.
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Albane Martin - il y a 455 jours
This is such a beautiful flow. I really like. I am an a pharmaceutical resume writer at a renowned company. At my company, we have an amazing garden which is full of flowers. Now I am loving this flower. I will definitely plant it in my garden so that everyone can see its beauty and become inspired by it. Clients also love the view. Thanks.
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