Buis commun (Buxus sempervirens)

Publié lundi 28 janvier 2013 Commenter 81
Buis commun

Sommaire

Buis commun : en bref

Nom scientifique
Buxus sempervirens
Provenance / Origine
Europe, Asie occidentale, Afrique du Nord
Période de semi
Printemps
Période de floraison
mars (rares)
Couleur de floraison
Vert pâle
Température
Climat tempéré (résiste au gel)
Exposition à la lumière
Plein soleil
Composition du sol
Siliceux à limoneux, ordinaire, bien drainé
Hauteur
6 à 8 m (très variable selon la taille réalisée)
Acidité du sol
Calcaire de préférence
Entretien
Supporte très bien la taille
Type biologique
Vivace
Type de feuillage
Persistant
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Diaphania perspectalis (chenille), cécidomyie

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Rosidae
Ordre
Euphorbiales
Famille
Buxaceae

Un arbuste durable

Si la croissance du buis est généralement assez lente, sa longévité peut quant à elle atteindre la centaine d’années. On peut exploiter cette lenteur pour tailler régulièrement et de façon précise le buis, ou accélérer la croissance en enrichissant le substrat.

Les jardins à la Française

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Si le buis commun est aujourd’hui si connu, c’est que son histoire dans nos jardins remonte à plusieurs siècles en arrière. Il est en effet l’espèce emblématique des « Jardins à la Française » dont l’exemple le plus célèbre est le jardin de Versailles. On peut l’utiliser dans tous les types de structures : isolé, en haie, en bordure, en massif, … et cette polyvalence lui a valu tout l’intérêt qu’on lui porte.

Exceptionnellement, ce n’est pas tant sa floraison qui est appréciée, puisqu’elle est rare et peu importante. C’est son feuillage, persistant, à la taille facile, constitué de petites feuilles oblongues ou ovales d’un vert foncé brillant qui assure le succès de Buxus sempervirens.

Emblème de l’art topiaire

Depuis le XVIème siècle, le buis commun a trouvé sa place au sein de l’art topiaire grâce à son feuillage qui peut supporter presque toute forme de taille. Cet art de sculpter des formes dans les végétaux atteint son apogée aux XVIIème et XVIIIème siècles, avec la réalisation dans les jardins de labyrinthes, d’animaux ou de figures taillés dans les arbustes, et le buis est l’espèce de référence pour les créateurs.

Usages

Le bois de Buxus sempervirens est très apprécié pour la gravure, la sculpture ou encore le tournage (il sert alors à confectionner des manches de couverts, des pièces d’échec…). Anecdote : ce sont aussi des rameaux de buis que les catholiques utilisent lors de la célébration du « Dimanche des rameaux » avant Pâques.

En homéopathie, le buis est employé contre les rhumatismes, la fièvre, la diarrhée ou la goutte.

Conseils

Si vous souhaitez réaliser une haie ou une bordure, plantez les différents pieds assez rapprochés : 30 à 40 centimètres d’espace entre deux suffisent. Tailler un arbuste isolé en cône, en pyramide ou en boule est souvent très esthétique, pour cela, veillez à amorcer la forme au fil des ans après la plantation, et lors de la mise en forme finale procédez du bas vers le haut : la forme désirée sera plus régulière ainsi.

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