Hortensia (Hydrangea macrophylla)

Publié jeudi 17 janvier 2013 Commenter 89
Hortensia

Sommaire

Hortensia : en bref

Nom scientifique
Hydrangea macrophylla
Provenance / Origine
Japon
Période de semi
Semis non usuel
Période de floraison
Juin à octobre
Couleur de floraison
Rose, bleu, violet, blanc, rouge
Température
Hivers pas trop rigoureux
Exposition à la lumière
Mi-ombre au sud, soleil tamisé pour les autres situations
Reproduction
Semis, pratiqué par les horticulteurs
Hauteur
80 cm à 1,50 m
Acidité du sol
Neutre à acide. Pas de calcaire!
Entretien
Arrosage. Coupe des inflorescences fanées.
Type biologique
Vivace
Maladies
Flétrissement
Type de feuillage
Caduc
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Cochenilles

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Rosidae
Ordre
Rosales
Famille
Hydrangeaceae

Bien que l'Hortensia pousse dans presque tous les climats, on peut presque dire que c'est une spécialité bretonne. En effet, on en voit à foison ornant les haies ou massifs des bords de mer. Cette arbuste fleuri se plaira tout aussi bien dans votre jardin si vous venez d'ailleurs.

De gros pompons de fleurs sans beaucoup de peine

 
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Lors de la mise en place de vos Hortensias, espacez-les d'environ 80 cm pour anticiper leur développement. Il devrait atteindre leur taille définitive au plus en six ans. Vous pouvez les organiser en massif ou en haie, à votre guise. Sachez qu'ils n'apprécient pas les thuyas à proximité, la concurrence racinaire inhibe la croissance des Hortensias. Eliminez les fleurs fanées au fur et à mesure. Un conseil, faites les sécher, vous obtiendrez un joli bouquet sec pérenne pour votre intérieur. En mars, avant la floraison, taillez les tiges pour densifier la ramure de l'Hortensia en forçant l'apparition de nouveaux rameaux. En été, veillez à ce que le sol reste bien frais en arrosant copieusement si le temps est trop sec.

Un bon indicateur de pH

Certaines variétés d'Hortensias ont une couleur de floraison qui dépend du pH du sol. Ainsi, si vous les achetez bleu et que vous les plantez en sol neutre, les inflorescences vireront progressivement au rose au fil des ans, en passant par des nuances de violet. Ceci est du à la présence d'anthocyanes dans les cellules végétales. Ces pigments végétaux changent de couleur suivant le pH, et pour être bleus, le pH doit être inférieur à 6. Si vous souhaitez garder votre Hortensia bleu et que vous n'habitez pas le grand Ouest au sous-sol granitique acide, il va vous falloir effectuer un peu plus de maintenance pour garder vos Hortensias bleu. Vous pouvez par exemple, au moment de la plantation, aménager une fosse suffisamment grande que vous tapisserez de revêtement fibreux. Vous installerez vos Hortensias dans cette fosse, dans un mélange de terre de bruyère et de terreau. Sinon, gardez votre sol intact, et arrosez vos arbustes avec de l'eau additionnée de sulfate d'aluminium.

Une fleur célébrée

Au Japon, les horticulteurs ont obtenu des centaines de cultivars différents, de toutes formes et toutes couleurs. Les plantes sont produites dans les ajisai-dera ou "temple des Hortensias" et chaque année, en juin, la tradition japonaise hanami fait se rassembler la foule dans ces temples pour en fêter la floraison.

A voir aussi

Découvrez notre article sur les hortensias grimpants

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