Greffe des rosiers

Publié dimanche 24 août 2014 Commenter 69
Rosier rose en fleur

Sommaire

Pourquoi greffer vos rosiers ?

Le rosier, de la famille des Rosacées, est bien souvent la vedette du jardin. La rose est en effet une fleur imprégnée du savoir-faire de dizaines de générations de jardiniers, à la fois rayonnante de beauté, et dégageant un grand mystère autour de son élégance naturelle. Parfums, couleurs, qualité du pétale, il existe autant de variétés que de goûts, par opposition au nombre d’espèces de rosiers réellement adaptées à un sol particulier. Par exemple, peu de variétés sont totalement adaptées à la culture en sol calcaire.

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La greffe permet donc :

  • De mieux adapter à votre sol la variété que vous désirez cultiver .
  • De conférer une résistance aux maladies et une vigueur nouvelle à vos rosiers.

Quand greffer vos rosiers ?

La période idéale pour le greffage des rosiers est la fin de l’été (à partir du 15 août). Notez cependant qu’il est possible, en fonction de la technique de greffage, de greffer au printemps (Avril à Mai)

Quels greffons, quels porte-greffes ?

En fonction de la méthode de greffe choisie, les greffons seront soit des bourgeons (ayant éventuellement débourrés) pour la greffe en écusson, soit des rameaux pour la greffe en fente. Ces greffons seront issus de la variété qui vous plaît (ayant un parfum délicat, ou un rouge intense et suave). La greffe est aussi un bon moyen de conservation des variétés rares ou disparues.

Les porte-greffes peuvent être différents selon l'époque de la greffe choisie ou le sol de votre jardin. Ils sont obtenus par semis ou par bouture:

  • Rosa canica pour les roses de printemps, d’été, d’automne.
  • Rosa indica pour les roses d’hiver.
  • Rosa laxa pour les sols calcaires
  • Rosa multiflora pour les sols argileux.

Quelles techniques de greffe utiliser ?

La technique la plus couramment utilisée est la greffe d’yeux (à œil dormant pour les roses d’hiver à faire fin août, à œil poussant pour les roses de printemps, d’été, d’automne à faire en avril-mai). On peut aussi greffer des rameaux par la greffe en fente.

  • Greffe à œil poussant : rabattez le porte-greffe et pratiquez une incision en T (pensez à arroser abondamment votre plant quelques jours avant, pour faciliter le décollement de l’écorce). Glissez dans l’incision l’écusson, préalablement détaché. Ligaturez.
  • Greffe à œil dormant : le principe est exactement le même que précédemment, seul le moment de réalisation change.

  • Greffe en fente : au printemps, rabattez le porte-greffe. Pratiquez-y une fente et glissez-y le greffon taillé en double lame. Ligaturez.

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