Conservation des bulbes

Publié vendredi 10 octobre 2014 Commenter 90
bulbes

Sommaire

Les plantes bulbeuses telles que les crocus, narcisses, jacinthes, tulipes, glaïeuls, bégonias ou dahlias sont des plantes vivaces dont les organes de réserves souterrains sont des protubérances issues du renflement de certains tissus. Elles fleurissent au printemps ou en été, en produisant une tige aérienne portant des fleurs simples ou en grappe. A la fin de la floraison, cette tige jaunit, la sève qu’elle contient redescend dans l’oignon sous-jacent, et la plante est alors réduite à ses organes souterrains : bulbes, tubercules ou rhizomes.

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Les narcisses et les bulbes de petite taille peuvent être laissés en place : il serait fastidieux et inutile de retirer un par un les bulbes de perce-neige, ou les bulbes des espèces qui ont une reproduction végétative importante. Mais dans la plupart des cas, on recommande de retirer les bulbes de terre pendant la saison hivernale, pour ne les replanter que lorsque la plante aborde sa phase végétative (printemps ou été).

Les phases de la croissance : dates d’arrachage et de mise en terre

Les plantes qui fleurissent au printemps sont plantées au début de l’automne (septembre, octobre ou même début novembre) et les oignons sont arrachés en juin.

Les espèces à floraison estivale sont plantées en mars-avril et arrachées à l’automne.

Dans tous les cas, il faut bien faire attention à n’arracher les bulbes que lorsque toute la sève y est retournée, c'est-à-dire quand les organes aériens sont devenus totalement jaunes et secs.

Modes de conservation des bulbes

Une fois les bulbes retirés de terre, il faut absolument les isoler de l’humidité : on peut les placer dans des caissettes bien aérées, sur une couche de papier journal ou de sciure de bois, qui absorbera l’humidité ambiante. Une conservation dans le noir, dans un endroit bien frais est préférable, pour simuler les conditions d’un hiver doux et sec. Faites également attention à ne pas trop entasser les bulbes ainsi qu'à ne pas les superposer : il faut veiller à laisser un espace entre chaque bulbe pour limiter la contamination de tout le lot dans le cas où un bulbe pourrisse. La meilleure solution reste tout de même de surveiller vos bulbes régulièrement pour s’assurer qu’une maladie ne s’y développe pas, ou que les rongeurs n’en font pas un festin !

Petite astuce : vous pouvez mettre dans les caissettes de conservation une ou deux gousses d’ail, qui éloigneront de vos bulbes les insectes indésirables !

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