Le saule pleureur (Salix Babylonica)

Publié lundi 20 mai 2013 Commenter 58
Saule pleureur dans un jardin

Sommaire

Le saule pleureur : en bref

Nom scientifique
Salix Babylonica
Provenance / Origine
Chine
Période de floraison
Avril – Mai
Couleur de floraison
Chatons jaunes-blancs
Température
Plein air, zones froides et tempérées
Exposition à la lumière
Mi-soleil
Reproduction
Bouture en plançon
Hauteur
5 – 10 m
Acidité du sol
Neutre, calcaire
Entretien
Taille possible de Janvier à Mars, ramasser et brûler les feuilles pour limiter les maladies.
Type biologique
Arbre
Maladies
Chancres, champignons qui attaquent les feuilles : Melampsora salicina, Septoria, Uncinula adunca et les troncs : Agaricus, Polyporus
Type de feuillage
Caduc
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Pucerons, chenilles

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Dilleniidae
Famille
Salicaceae

Une plante pour orner les plans d'eau

Originaire de Chine, cet arbre au port décoratif est largement planté en bordure de mares, dans les parc paysagers ou les cimetières. Son port tortueux et ses fines branches tombantes lui ont valu le nom de saule "pleureur". Il aime le soleil mais doit toujours avoir les racines au frais pour ce sentir bien. Cet abre peut atteindre 10 m de hauteur et a besoin d'espace pour se développer.

Planter un saule pleureur

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Les saules sont des arbres dioïques, seuls les pieds femelles sont largement répandus en Europe. Leur multiplication se fait le plus souvent pas bouturage. En effet, à l'automne il suffit de prélever une extrémité de tige, enlever les feuilles, puis mettre dans l'eau ou dans la terre... Cela repousse tout seul! Il ne restera plus qu'à le planter dans un endroit frais et assez ensoleillé. Ne pas oublier de bien l'arroser les premières années, car les jeunes pieds sont très sensibles à la sécheresse. Le saule pleureur peut être taillé aisément. Il est recommandé de couper les rameaux avant qu'ils n'atteignent le sol. Il est également possible de le tailler en tétard pour obtenir des perches.

Le saule est sensible aux maladies comme les chancres ou la rouille. Attention également aux champignons comme Melampsora salicina qui peut attaquer les feuilles en automne ou encore polyporus qui se développe sur son tronc. Des insectes ravageurs tels les pucerons, chenilles et charançons peuvent également lui causer de nombreux dégats. Pour limiter les dommages de ces parasites, il est conseillé de ramasser les feuilles à l'automne et de les brûler.

En résumé, le saule pleureur est un arbre qui se multiplie et pousse très bien, mais qui reste néanmoins sensible : à surveiller donc !

Propriétés et usages

Les rameaux flexibles du saule étaient autrefois utilisés pour fabriquer des paniers. Son bois a servi dans de nombreux ouvrages, allant des bateaux (corvette rapide) aux battes de cricket. La saliciline, contenue dans les feuilles de saule, est encore aujourd'hui utilisée pour faire de l'aspirine

Variétés intéressantes

Le saule pleureur (salix babylonica) se décline de nos jours en plusieurs variétés dont les plus courantes sont détaillées ci-dessous :

  • Tortuosa : comme son nom l'indique, ses branches et ses feuilles sont très tortueuses
  • Crispa : dont les feuilles s'enroulent étangement en spirale
  • Pendula : dont les rameaux blancheâtre tombent de manière très élégante. Son feuillage est plus dense.

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