artichaut (Cynara scolymus)

Publié mercredi 06 février 2013 Commenter 91
artichaut

Sommaire

artichaut : en bref

Nom scientifique
Cynara scolymus
Provenance / Origine
bassin méditerranéen
Période de floraison
début de l'été
Couleur de floraison
bleu mauve
Température
craint les gelées à partir de -2°C
Exposition à la lumière
soleil
Reproduction
oeilletonnage
Hauteur
1,5 m
Entretien
paillage, arrosage, protection hivernale
Type biologique
vivace cultivée en trisannuelle
Maladies
oïdium, mildiou
Type de feuillage
caduc
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
chenille, puceron, escargot
Période de récolte
juin-septembre

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Asteridae
Ordre
Asterales
Famille
Asteraceae

L’artichaut, une plante potagère frileuse.

L’artichaut ne fait pas que produire des boutons floraux comestibles. Ses grandes feuilles découpées sont aussi très décoratives et il donnera du volume au potager. Cependant sa culture n’est pas adaptée à toutes les situations. Il lui faut des hivers doux et un sol bien drainé. Il s’épanouit à merveille dans le bassin méditerranéen sous réserve d’être correctement arrosé (un système d’irrigation peut s’avérer utile).

La culture de l’artichaut, un calendrier sur trois ans

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L’artichaut est une plante vivace mais la production décroit avec l’âge. L’idéal est donc de le cultiver sur trois ans.

Plantez les premiers artichauts au printemps de la première année avec un espacement d’un mètre en tous sens. La production aura lieu en août-septembre. Pendant l’hiver, coupez la plupart des feuilles, buttez le pied et paillez-le pour le protéger du froid. Au printemps de la deuxième année, prélevez des œilletons sur les plants en place et replantez-les. La première génération d’artichauts produit cette fois au début de l’été alors que la deuxième produit en août-septembre. La troisième année, prélevez à nouveau des œilletons et replantez-les. Les deux premières générations produisent au début de l’été et la troisième produit en août-septembre. A la fin de la troisième année, vous pouvez arracher les plants de première génération. Et le cycle recommence ! Vous obtiendrez une dizaine d’artichauts par plant.

Consommation et conservation

L’idéal est bien sûr de les consommer sur le champ. Sinon, cueillez-les avec leur tige et plongez les dans l’eau, ils résisteront ainsi quelques jours. Ils se consomment cuits à la vapeur. Ajoutez dans l’eau de cuisson un peu de vinaigre et une petite cuillère de sucre pour plus de saveur. Les cœurs peuvent se consommer crus. Pour éviter qu’ils noircissent, frottez les avec du citron. Faites aussi des conserves de cœurs d’artichauts ou congelez-les. Notez que la consommation d’artichauts est bénéfique pour la santé : ils contiennent des antioxydants, de nombreux minéraux et des vitamines !

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