Cerisier (Prunus avium, cerasus)

Publié mardi 12 février 2013 Commenter 41
cerisier2

Sommaire

Cerisier : en bref

Nom scientifique
Prunus avium, cerasus
Provenance / Origine
Asie
Période de semi
Hiver
Période de floraison
Printemps
Couleur de floraison
Blanc
Température
Climat doux
Exposition à la lumière
Soleil
Reproduction
Semis, greffe
Hauteur
2,5 à 8 mètres
Acidité du sol
Neutre à légèrement calcaire
Entretien
Taille, apport de compost
Type biologique
Vivace
Maladies
Gommose
Type de feuillage
Caduc
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Mouche des cerises, pucerons, oiseaux

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Rosidae
Ordre
Rosales
Famille
Rosaceae

Un arbre fruitier nécessitant peu d’entretien

Le cerisier (prunus cerasus, prunus avium à ne pas confondre avec le cerisier japonais, qui lui est ornemental) est un arbre fruitier aux feuilles caduques originaire d’Asie mineure. Au printemps, à partir du mois de mars, il donne des fleurs blanches qui laisseront place à des cerises en été. En France, il peut être cultivé dans toutes les régions ayant une altitude inférieure à 1000 mètres.

Une culture délicate sur l’emplacement

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Pour s’épanouir, le cerisier a besoin d’espace à raison de huit mètre d’autres arbres. Bien qu’isolé, il doit être planté à l’abri du vent. Il nécessite une bonne exposition au soleil, dans un terrain profond, léger et non argileux. Il supporte également des sols légèrement calcaires.

En semant des noyaux, vous obtiendrez un arbre porte-greffe. Pensez à stratifier les noyaux avant de les mettre en terre. Lorsque le plant a deux ans, vous pouvez alors effectuer une greffe en écusson en fin d’été ou début d’automne selon le porte-greffe utilisé.

Si vous achetez un arbre en conteneur, plantez-le au mois de novembre si le terrain n’est pas gelé.

Des variétés naines comme la ‘Garden Bing’ peuvent être mises en culture sur un balcon, dans un pot d’au moins 50 centimètres de côté. Attention, un cerisier nain mesure tout de même 2,50 mètres!

Peu d’arrosage mais une taille soigneuse

Le cerisier ne nécessite pas d’arrosage particulier. Ne l’arrosez qu’en cas de très forte sécheresse. En revanche, un apport de compost au printemps lui sera bénéfique. Les feuilles de cerisier contiennent généralement des germes de maladies : ne les utilisez pas pour fabriquer votre compost.

Afin de limiter la hauteur de votre arbre, les branches principales doivent être taillées les premières années de manière à leur laisser deux tiers de leur longueur. La taille doit être effectuée par temps sec avec des outils propres en fin d’été. Suite à la taille, appliquez une couche de mastic cicatrisant, qui limitera les écoulements de gomme. En effet, ces écoulements peuvent ôter de la vigueur à votre arbre.

Si votre terrain est trop calcaire, le cerisier peut développer une chlorose. Des apports de terre de bruyère et l’utilisation d’une solution anti chlorose dans de l’eau permettent de limiter ce phénomène.

Le cerisier est également sensible à la gommose, à la mouche des cerises et aux pucerons. Après la taille, pulvériser de la bouillie bordelaise pourra convenir comme traitement de prévention.

Les prédateurs principaux des cerises sont les oiseaux, qui boivent l’eau des fruits. Laissez à côté de votre arbre des petites coupelles d’eau pour les dissuader de s’attaquer à vos fruits.

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