Lutter contre les mauvaises herbes sans traitement chimique

Publié mercredi 15 mai 2013 Commenter 27
Desherbarge

Sommaire

Des alternatives au désherbage chimique

Les mauvaises herbes ou plus officiellement nommées « adventices » ne sont pas les bienvenues au jardin : elles empêchent vos semis de lever, elles font de la concurrence à vos plantes pour l’utilisation de l’eau, des nutriments et de la lumière. De plus, elles peuvent abriter des nuisibles et aussi nuire à l’esthétisme de votre jardin.

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Même si vous souhaitez vous en débarrasser rapidement et facilement, il est déconseillé de se ruer sur les désherbants chimiques qui font souvent plus de mal que de bien et qui peuvent devenir inefficaces si vous les utilisez trop fréquemment.

Heureusement, il est possible de lutter contre ces indésirables sans utiliser de produits nocifs pour vous, pour l’eau, pour votre sol et toute la vie qui s’y trouve. En effet, il existe de nombreuses techniques alternatives.

Désherbez manuellement

Pour les petites surfaces ou pour les plus courageux, le désherbage manuel est la solution la plus simple. Il peut être optimisé grâce à l’utilisation d’outils comme la grelinette qui est très ergonomique et permet de bien déraciner les adventices. Sinon, une fourche-bêche ou une sarcleuse font aussi l’affaire.

Mettez en place un paillage

Un paillis permet à la fois de limiter le développement de mauvaises herbes et de garder la terre humide. Même si ce n’est pas efficace à 100%, il s'agit d'un procédé très facile et plutôt esthétique. Vous pouvez utiliser vos propres déchets verts broyés ou acheter des sacs de paillis ou une toile de paillage dans le commerce

Nous vous conseillons www.tissnet.fr pour l'achat d'une toile de paillage

Utilisez un plastique noir

Il est aussi possible d’étaler un plastique noir sur le sol avant d’effectuer vos plantations. Celui-ci va étouffer les graines d’adventices et donc empêcher leur levée. Il suffit de percer des trous dans le plastique pour planter vos végétaux. Cependant se pose alors le problème du recyclage de ce plastique. Il existe aussi des films biodégradables à base d’amidon de maïs ou encore des toiles en fibres tissées réutilisables.

Un plastique noir peut aussi être utilisé pour la technique de solarisation : cela consiste à positionner ce plastique par temps chaud pendant au moins 4 semaines afin que la température du sol augmente fortement. Cette forte chaleur doit détruire mauvaises herbes et maladies du sol.

Semez des engrais verts

Les engrais verts sont des plantes herbacées comme le trèfle, la phacélie, la moutarde, etc. Ils sont semés sur des sols non utilisés à la fois pour occuper ces sols et pour les enrichir en matière organique. Ce sont des plants à croissance rapide et très couvrants qui permettent d’empêcher les graines de mauvaises herbes présentes dans le sol de lever. Certains, comme le sarrasin, ont même un effet « nettoyant » grâce à une substance qu’il libère dans le sol et qui inhibe la levée des adventices. N’hésitez plus, dès que votre terre se libère, semez des engrais verts !

Réalisez un faux semis

Le faux semis est une technique qui consiste à « tromper » les adventices en faisant comme si on allait bientôt semer ses cultures. Ainsi, il vous faudra donc travailler votre sol, arroser, etc. Dans cette terre fine et humide les graines d’adventices vont germer rapidement, vous pouvez alors les sarcler. Renouvelez le faux semis deux ou trois fois avant d’ensemencer le sol.

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