Laurier noble (Laurus nobilis)

Publié mardi 05 février 2013 Commenter 25
Laurier noble

Sommaire

Laurier noble : en bref

Nom scientifique
Laurus nobilis
Provenance / Origine
Bassin Mméditerranéen
Période de floraison
printemps
Couleur de floraison
jaune
Température
climat méditerranéen idéal
Exposition à la lumière
soleil
Reproduction
bouturage ou marcottage
Hauteur
Jusqu'à 8 m
Acidité du sol
neutre
Entretien
protéger du gel quand il est jeune, taille sur tige bien appropriée
Type biologique
vivace
Maladies
oïdium
Type de feuillage
persistant
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
psylles, aleurodes, cochenille

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Magnoliidae
Famille
Lauracées

Laurier noble et traditions

On l’appelle aussi le laurier d’Apollon. Et pour cause, c’est lui-même qui était utilisé durant l’Antiquité pour couronner les chefs et les poètes. Qui n’a pas en tête l’image d’un certain Jules César couronné de laurier ? Suite à ses débuts glorieux, le laurier a été source de nombreuses croyances. Au Moyen-âge notamment, l’idée que le laurier protège de la foudre est communément admise. Il a aussi vocation à purifier l’air autour duquel il pousse…

Son usage actuel

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Il semblerait que le laurier noble ait quelque peu perdu ses capacités à protéger de la foudre. Il est incontournable en revanche pour assaisonner les plats (soupes, viandes, pot-au-feu, ragoûts, …). On le surnomme d’ailleurs le laurier sauce. Il est préférable d’utiliser les feuilles une fois séchées, elles perdent ainsi de leur amertume.

Il s’agit aussi d’une plante médicinale peu utilisée comme telle. Elle aurait des vertus antiseptiques.

Le laurier noble au jardin

Le laurier noble a l’avantage de se tailler très facilement. Il se prête notamment très bien à la taille en arbuste sur tige simple. Pour plus d’originalité, vous pouvez aussi en faire un laurier en boule à tige torsadée. Pour cela il vous suffit de partir d’un plant comportant plusieurs tiges souples et rectilignes. Vous n’en conserverez que trois, que vous torsaderez en tresse. Coupez le dernier tiers de la hauteur, il se formera des ramifications qu’il faudra peu à peu tailler en boule.

Le laurier peut résister à des froids de -15°C. Au Sud de la Loire, vous pouvez le planter en pleine terre. Au Nord, préférez la culture en pot qu’il faudra rentrer l’hiver.

Le laurier a des propriétés insecticides contre bon nombre d’insectes. Cependant il peut être attaqué par certains insectes tels que les psylles ou les aleurodes. Il vous faut absolument  couper tous les rameaux atteins en hiver pour les brûler avant que l’arbuste ne soit plus touché.

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