Basilic (Ocymum Basilicum)

Publié lundi 04 février 2013 Commenter 76
Basilic

Sommaire

Basilic : en bref

Nom scientifique
Ocymum Basilicum
Provenance / Origine
Asie du Sud
Période de semi
en caissette sous abris entre février et mars, en pleine terre après le 15 mai
Couleur de floraison
blanc
Température
s’adapte à tous les climats, mais seul le climat méditerranéen permet aux graines d’arriver à maturité.
Exposition à la lumière
plein soleil
Reproduction
semis
Hauteur
moins de 40 cm
Acidité du sol
neutre
Entretien
couper quelques épis foraux pour favoriser la ramification. Arroser régulièrement
Type biologique
annuelle
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
Attention aux limaces !
Période de récolte
entre juillet et septembre en fonction des variétés

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Ordre
Lamiales
Famille
Lamiaceae

Basilic et traditions

Le basilic est indissociable de la culture méditerranéenne. Son arôme s’allie à merveille avec la tomate, l’aubergine ou la courgette. Il sert à la confection du pistou provençal et du pesto italien. Son utilisation dans la cuisine méditerranéenne  cache en réalité son origine indienne où il avait un rôle religieux. Le basilic y était principalement utilisé dans les rites funéraires. La plante royale, comme on la surnomme, a toujours tenu une place importante dans l’imaginaire rural. Elle aurait aidé la Vierge Marie à se camoufler quand Hérode la poursuivait à la recherche de son fils. Grâce à cette légende, elle est devenue une plante protectrice à planter devant toutes les maisons.

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Vous pourrez utiliser le basilic pour aromatiser vos huiles d’olive ou de tournesol. Il suffit pour cela de laisser macérer deux semaines quelques feuilles fraîchement cueillies dans la bouteille d’huile.  Pour le faire sécher, confectionner un bouquet enveloppé dans du papier kraft que vous suspendrez la tête en bas dans un lieu chaud et aéré. Vous conserverez ensuite les tiges un an dans des boites hermétiques à l’abri de la lumière.

Les arômes du basilic varient beaucoup d’une espèce à l’autre. Essayez le petit basilic (O.b. var. minimum) pour son goût piquant, O.b. ‘Cinnamon’ pour sa pointe de cannelle ou ‘Siam Queen’ pour son arôme de réglisse.

Une herbe médicinale qui a fait ses preuves

Sachez aussi que le basilic a des vertus antidépressives, calmantes et antiseptiques. L’huile essentielle issue des fleurs est utilisée comme huile de massage pour soigner les états dépressifs. Elle constitue aussi un insecticide efficace. Une infusion de 15g de feuilles dans 1 litre d’eau facilite la digestion. Frottez quelques feuilles fraîches sur une piqûre d’insecte pour calmer la démangeaison. Vous l’aurez compris, son utilisation n’a pas de limite ! Notez cependant que l’huile essentielle est déconseillée aux femmes enceintes.

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