Cornichon (Cucumbis sativus)

Publié mardi 05 février 2013 Commenter 54
Cornichon

Sommaire

Cornichon : en bref

Nom scientifique
Cucumbis sativus
Provenance / Origine
Inde
Période de semi
Mai-Juin
Couleur de floraison
jaune
Température
craignent le froid
Exposition à la lumière
soleil
Reproduction
semis
Hauteur
rampant sur 20 cm ou sur support
Acidité du sol
neutre
Entretien
arroser et cueillir régulièrement
Type biologique
annuelle
Maladies
oïdium, fusarium, nuile
Insectes et animaux ravageurs
pucerons et accariens
Période de récolte
pendant tout l'été

Classification de la plante

Règne
Plantae
Sous-règne
Tracheobionta
Division
Magnoliophyta
Classe
Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe
Dilleniidae
Ordre
Violales
Famille
Cucurbitacées

Le cornichon, un légume facile

Le cornichon, comme toutes les courges, ne demande pas beaucoup d’entretien. Ce ne sont ni plus ni moins que des concombres cueillis prématurément. Cependant, certaines variétés ont été sélectionnées pour produire des cornichons et non des concombres : ‘Pioneer F1’ donne notamment  des cornichons verts foncés. Les cornichons ‘Fin de Meaux’ ou ‘améliorés de Bourgogne’ donnent plutôt des fruits longs bien adaptés à la mise en bocaux. Notez que la variété ‘Pioneer F1’ est la plus rustique. Si vous avez semé des variétés de concombre et que la récoltes est trop abondante (cela arrive !), n’hésitez pas à les cueillir tôt au stade cornichon.

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Semez les graines en pleine terre en début Mai, sous châssis. Quand les plants ont 2 feuilles, replantez-les sur leur emplacement définitif à raison de un par mètre carré. Arrosez copieusement et couvrez d’une cloche pour faciliter la reprise.  Pour favoriser la ramification, sectionnez au stade 4 feuilles les 2 feuilles supérieures.

Vous n’avez plus qu’à laisser le plan s’étendre. Si vous manquez de place, confectionnez une structure verticale pyramidale ou disposez simplement un grillage vertical pour qu’il y ait croissance en hauteur. La cueillette n’en sera que plus aisée. Si le feuillage se fane un peu pendant les heures chaudes de la journée, ne vous inquiétez pas. Il reprendra de la vigueur le soir. Arrosez plus le matin ou étendez éventuellement un voile pour tamiser la lumière. Cueillez les cornichons régulièrement durant l’été à la taille souhaitée.

Après la récolte

L’utilisation la plus rependue consiste à les mettre en bocal dans du vinaigre. Ajoutez-y quelques feuilles d’estragon pour aromatiser le vinaigre et diminuer la sensation d’acidité. Vous pouvez aussi ajouter quelques petits oignons. Vous dégusterez les cornichons toute l’année, en accompagnement des charcuteries, des raclettes, … Ils décorent à merveille les plats.

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