Bouturage d'oliviers

Publié dimanche 24 mars 2013 Commenter 94
Oliviers

Sommaire

L’olivier, un arbre majestueux

Célèbre pour sa longévité, l’olivier est également un arbre qui peut ajouter un certain cachet à votre jardin. Acquérir des arbres adultes en jardinerie peut coûter très cher en fonction de l’âge de la plante (de quelques années à plusieurs décennies).

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D'autre part, un grand inconvénient des oliviers de ce type réside dans le fait qu’ils sont souvent importés d’Italie ou de Grèce, régions climatiquement très différentes des nôtres. Les arbres ne sont alors pas acclimatés à nos températures et risquent de péricliter en cas de gel. La solution est de les bouturer et de les cultiver chez vous directement pour les habituer à nos latitudes.

Quand procéder au bouturage ?

La meilleure période propice à cette pratique est certainement de fin juillet à septembre, à la fin de la période de croissance de l’arbre.

Quel rameau choisir ?

On a ici recours à une méthode de bouturage de rameaux semi-ligneux, comme pour de nombreux arbres.

Sélectionner une branche de quelques millimètres de diamètre et de 10 à 15 cm de longueur. Celle-ci doit être saine, indemne de tous dégâts.

Les noeuds (points d’attache des feuilles sur la tige) doivent être les plus rapprochés possibles. C’est un indicateur de la bonne vigueur de la branche, ainsi son enracinement se fera plus vite.

Comment procéder ?

Coupez le rameau juste sous un noeud. Retirez ensuite les feuilles de la partie inférieure pour qu’il ne reste que 6 paires de feuilles.

Trempez maintenant l’extrémité du rameau dans de l’eau puis dans une poudre d’hormones de bouturage. Enlevez le surplus éventuel d’hormones en tapotant légèrement la branche. Cette étape n’est pas indispensable, mais elle aidera la bouture à s’enraciner plus rapidement.

Préparez un pot avec du terreau de bouturage (disponible en jardinerie) et plantez-y la bouture à moitié (attention au sens, la partie basse doit être dans le pot !). Tassez le terreau pour stabiliser la branche, puis arrosez généreusement.

Quel environnement pour ma bouture ?

Le facteur le plus important pour que votre bouture s’enracine et se développe est l’humidité. En effet, si l’air est trop sec, la jeune plante perdra toute son eau en transpirant.

Il est par ailleurs important d’avoir une température douce, autour des 20°C, au niveau du pot.

Pour garder l’humidité et la chaleur, vous pouvez utiliser une mini-serre ou mettre un sac plastique transparent sur le pot. Mais attention, ne placez jamais votre bouture en plein soleil, sans quoi elle se dessèchera entièrement. Un endroit lumineux est l’idéal.

L’olivier a une croissance relativement lente, c’est pourquoi il vous faut rester patient avant de le voir grandir. Mais le jeu en vaut la chandelle !

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