Les maladies de la tomate

Publié samedi 23 mars 2013 Commenter 60
Docteur Tomates !

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Un grand nombre de maladies menace la tomate

La tomate, souvent considérée comme la reine du potager, n’est pas pour autant épargnée par les maladies. Au contraire, de nombreux parasites peuvent réduire votre récolte à néant : les champignons, les bactéries, les virus, les nématodes, les problèmes physiologiques etc.  Nous aborderons dans cet article les problèmes les plus fréquents dans nos potagers: d’une part, les champignons pathogènes comme le mildiou et l’Alternaria.  D’autre part, une maladie virale due au virus de la mosaïque de la tomate. Et enfin la maladie dite du cul noir (ou nécrose apicale) qui n’est pas due à un parasite mais à des carences en nutriments.

Gare aux champignons pathogènes (mildiou et alternariose) par temps humide !

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Le mildiou est le principal ennemi des tomates. Le champignon responsable de cette maladie, Phytophtora infestans  se propage surtout en fin d’été, voire plus tôt si le temps est pluvieux. Un climat chaud et humide est propice à une attaque. Les symptômes que vous pourrez observer sur vos plants de tomates atteints sont des taches brunes irrégulières sur les feuilles qui sèchent ensuite puis un pourrissement des fruits. Si vous n’intervenez pas, les dégâts peuvent être catastrophiques!

 

Les solutions : 

- de bonnes conditions de culture : tuteurez bien vos plants afin de les aérer, évitez les excès de fertilisation et d’arrosage (arrosez le sol, surtout ne mouillez jamais le feuillage !), ne cultivez pas d’autres plantes hôtes du mildiou (pomme de terre, aubergine, poivron) à proximité.

- des traitements préventifs : le purin d’ortie à une concentration 1/8, soit dans le sol, soit en pulvérisation ou de la bouillie bordelaise à 1% tous les 15 jours, dès que le climat devient humide.

 

- dès que vous repérez une attaque, supprimez les parties concernées et brûlez-les.

L’alternariose est due champignon Alternaria qui vit dans le sol. Il forme d’abord des tâches brunes concentriques sur les feuilles, surtout sur celles du bas, puis d’étend sur les tiges et les fruits où il créé des pourritures brunes et sèches.

 

Les méthodes de lutte sont les mêmes que celles contre le mildiou. Un traitement avec une décoction de prêles peut aussi être efficace.  Si votre sol est infesté, effectuez une rotation de vos cultures : ne plantez des tomates ou autres solanacées (pomme de terre, aubergine, poivron, piments…) au même endroit que tous les 3 ans, afin que les spores d’Alternaria soient éliminées.

La maladie du cul noir : une carence en Calcium

La maladie du cul noir ou nécrose apicale, comme son nom l’indique, est facilement identifiable par les tâches noires qu’elle forme à la base des tomates. Ce phénomène est très courant et est favorisé par une alternance de longues périodes sèches et d’apports massifs en eau. Cette maladie est en fait une carence en calcium, soit car le sol n’en contient pas assez, soit car la plante le prélève mal.

 

Les solutions : Si le problème provient de la nature du sol, vous pouvez y remédier en utilisant du purin de Consoude de Russie, des cendres ou d’autres amendements calcique. Sinon, le problème vient fréquemment de l’irrégularité des apports en eau. Vous pouvez mettre en place un paillage afin de mieux contrôler l’humidité du sol.

 

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