La taille des pommiers

Publié vendredi 17 janvier 2014 Commenter 85
Le pommier 2

Sommaire

Le pommier est l’arbre fruitier incontournable de nos jardins. La taille du pommier, quelle que soit sa variété, est une étape importante dans l’entretien de l'arbre.

La taille du pommier permet, notamment, d’avoir une récolte de fruits plus importante. Il existe différents types de taille. Quelle que soit celle que l’on choisit, il faut qu'elle soit précise, nette et toujours faite en diagonale pour éviter l’infiltration d’eau. De plus, il faut qu'elle soit effectuée en hiver, hors période de gel.

La taille de fructification

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La taille de fructification se fait lorsque les arbres sont déjà formés afin d’aider à la mise en place de la charpente. Cette taille peut donc être réalisée sur des arbres plantés depuis au minimum un an.

La taille de fructification débute par la suppression des branches mortes, malades ou abîmées. Il faut aussi supprimer les vieux fruits, les branches poussant vers l’intérieur ainsi que les jeunes pousses peu vigoureuses n’ayant pas un bon accès à la lumière. Pour la taille des branches principales, faites le tour de l’arbre pour n’en oublier aucune. Cette taille se fait en laissant 3 yeux au minimum au-dessus d’un bourgeon. Le bourgeon choisi doit être à 60 cm du tronc et orienté vers l’extérieur pour éviter le développement de branches intérieures. L’application d’un mastic de cicatrisation est ensuite conseillé afin d’éviter le développement de maladies.

La taille en gobelet

Il faut commencer par tailler les rameaux estivaux à 30 cm du tronc. Puis, il faut tailler les branches qui se croisent et poussent vers l’intérieur. Cette taille permet de maintenir le pommier dans une forme harmonieuse et peut être réalisée dès la fin de l’automne.

La taille en palmette

Cette taille débute par la diminution des ramifications secondaires à 3 yeux. Ensuite, il faut palisser les rameaux de l’été. Ces derniers doivent être taillés à 50 cm de longueur. En effectuant ces opérations tous les ans, on obtiendra un pommier palissé ou en espalier pour orner un mur par exemple.

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